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Ready to Get Mesmerized by Istanbul’s Strait?


Are you one of those who says “Not a day goes by that I can’t see the sea!”? If yes, then open your arms! Istanbul is waiting for you. Without a doubt, Strait of Istanbul or more commonly known as Bosphorus is going to be your lifetime lover.

What is The Strait of Istanbul?

Bosphorus is a natural and narrow strait located in northwestern Turkey. Besides its natural beauty, it also has national and international significance. For Turkey, it’s the most significant waterway thanks to its geopolitical location. Turkey is divided by Bosphorus as it’s separating Anatolia from Thrace. Internationally, Bosphorus is a bridge and boundary between Europe and Asia. The length of the Bosphorus is 18 miles. The average depth of the Bosphorus is 200 feet in total. On the other hand, the deepest areas of the Bosphorus are known as 393 feet. Also, it is known as the narrowest strait which is used for international voyages. Through the Bosphorus, almost all the naval traffic of the Black Sea passes. Moreover, it is inevitable to mention the other strait which is Dardanelles when it’s about popular straits of Turkey. It was formed by a collapse that occurred at the end of the 3rd geological time. Its length is 40 miles. The widest part of the strait is 19028 ft, the narrowest part is 4101 ft (Kilit Bahir Castle between Cimlik Castle) and the deepest part is 347 ft.

Is it Bosphorus or Bosporus?

You can see different variations of the name of the strait and you might get confused but no worries, because both are actually correct. It is known that the origin of the name of the strait comes from the word Βόσπορος (​Bosporos) in Ancient Greek. In Turkish, it is referred to as “Istanbul Bogazi” which simply means Istanbul Strait.



Why Is It Called Bosphorus?

According to some other sources, Bosphorus has its origins from a Thracian word that means the passage of the cows. It is known that this belief is related to an Ancient Greek myth of Zeus and his lover Io. According to the legend, Hera, angry wife of Zeus, sends a gadfly which is a type of fly that bites horses or cattle to take her revenge from Io. By doing so, she wants her to wander without having any rest. During this voyage, Io passes by Bosphorus and after that, it was started to be called  Bosphorus or “path of cattle.” One way or another, today it is widely known as and popular for its name Bosphorus or Istanbul Bogazı.

The Iconic Bridges of Istanbul

Istanbul is a big, old city with an Asian side and European side. Divided by a strait, Istanbul is in need to be connected with its two sides to each other. At this point, some famous structures come into the spotlight. So, here is the list of the bridges in Istanbul:

  • Bosphorus Bridge
  • Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge
  • Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge
  • Galata Bridge
  • Golden Horn Metro Bridge


How long are These Bridges?

Bosphorus Bridge: Bosphorus Bridge is known as the first constructed bridge to connect two, Asian and Anatolian sides. On the European side, the bridge starts in Ortakoy and on the Anatolian side, it ends in Beylerbeyi. It was opened on 30 October 1973, one day after 29 October which was the 50th anniversary of the Republic. It was officially called  Bosphorus Bridge till July 26, 2016. In 2016, after the coup attempt, it is started to be called as ​15 July Martyrs Bridge​ to honor those civilian victims. The bridge, which has a total length of 5118 ft, has a middle span of 1074, a width of 33.40 and a height of 209 feet from the sea. Besides its important function of connecting two sides to each other, it also becomes a tourist attraction and a landmark of Istanbul.

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge: Due to heavy traffic, Bosphorus Bridge was inadequate for the highly increasing population of Istanbul. For this reason, there was a need for a new bridge. To fulfill this need, construction of the bridge was started in May 2013 and it was completed on October 24, 2014. Bridge legs are 1112 feet above sea level, 1056 and 1049 feet from the ground. The Bridge takes its name from the 7​th​ sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Fatih Sultan Mehmet.



Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge: The bridge is spanning over Istanbul Strait. The main aim of the bridge is to serve as a road for motor vehicles and trains to transit over the Bosphorus. The route of the bridge is located in Sariyer. It’s in Garipce neighborhood on the European Side and in Poyrazkoy district of Beykoz on the Anatolian Side. The bridge comes first for its many different features such as:

  • The bridge is the widest in the world with a width of 193 feet,
  • The tallest suspended bridge with a tower height of 1056 feet
  • World’s tallest suspension bridge with its second tallest tower in all bridge classes
  • The longest with all the main suspension bridges with its main span of 3428 feet,
  • The ninth among all the suspension bridges.
  • It is the longest middle span suspension bridge.

The construction was started in May 2013 and it lasted for 27 months. it was opened in August 2016. Just like Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, the Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge takes its name from a sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Selim I or also known as Yavuz Sultan Selim. He was the 9​th sultan of the Empire.

The Galata Bridge: History of the bridge dates back to ancient times. The fifth of the Galata Bridge, which has been built and destroyed 4 times throughout its history, was built in 1994 and is still in service today. What makes this bridge even more attractive is the activities that not only tourists but also locals can do. If you wonder which activities that this bridge serves, here’s a list that you’re looking for!

  • Eating Out: Along with many fish restaurants underneath, it’s a great option for a romantic dinner.
  • Fishing: Walking on the Galata Bridge is also the best stopping point for fishing lovers.
  • The Amazing View: When you come to the middle, watching Istanbul Bosphorus view, city lines ferries and live city life is one of the most beautiful activities in this region.


Golden Horn Bridge Metro Bridge: Golden Horn Bridge is one of the bridges that spanning over the Golden Horn in Istanbul. It lies between Ayvansaray and Halicioglu. It is 3264 feet long, also 6 feet high above sea level. Although it has a beautiful view, there is just one point that you need to be careful about. In the wintertime, due to icing that occurs on the bridge, many accidents take place. For this reason, we recommend you to be careful If you visit Istanbul in the wintertime.

How popular is The Strait of Istanbul?

It would not be an exaggeration to say that Bosphorus is on the top of the holiday list for foreign visitors but do not think that it is only limited to people from other countries because It also attracts Turkish people from different cities as well. On the other hand, the fact that almost every shore of the strait serves local people as their home leads us to the conclusion that Bosphorus is number one for locals too. Bosphorus with its two coasts gives a breath to metropolitan Istanbul with a population of 17 million.



Does Turkey control the Bosphorus?

The best answer to be given to this question is yes. According to a convention which is called Montreux Convention, Bosphorus Strait, and Dardanelles Strait have been controlled by Turkey since 1936. This convention also aims to make a regulation for the passage of warships between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Seas. Again, according to this convention, as long as it’s peacetime, Turkey has the main principle and this includes the freedom of the passage.

Can you swim in the Bosphorus?

Yes, you can swim in the Bosphorus but, there is a but there. It is not really advised. If you wonder the reason why, well it is all about your health and safety. As being one of the most famous straits of the World, Bosphorus Strait also has heavy maritime traffic. As a result of this, it is highly polluted. On the other hand, as the Bosphorus is highly deep, it might cause an unpleasant situation If you don’t take the necessary precautions before you swim. However, we have a piece of good news for you If you are really determined to enjoy the cold water of the Strait. Keep reading!



Have you ever heard of the Bosphorus Cross-continental Swimming Race?

If you can take your eyes off the beautiful the Strait and decide to make your life even more excited, just stop and think about Bosphorus Cross-continental Swimming Race. It’s a great opportunity to swim in Bosphorus and enjoy the precious feeling of rivalry.

What is the Bosphorus Cross-Continental Swimming Race?

It’s basically a competition for swimming lovers. It is held every year in July. Last year, in 2019 it was​ ​held for the 31st time on 21 July. Many visitors from inside and outside of Turkey pay great attention to this race. Reportedly, 4 thousand swimmers from 51 countries applied for the race last year. It’s clear that it has great importance for both Turkey and Bosphorus. Thanks to this race, Bosphorus which is already widely known by the whole world becomes much more popular.

What is the Age Range of the Competitors?

In this super exciting race, there are competitors from different nationalities, genders, and ages. Reportedly, the youngest competitor is 14 years old in the meantime the oldest one is 89 years old.

Which Countries Do Competitors Participate in the Race From?

The intense interest of countries such as Russia, Ukraine and the United Kingdom to the Bosphorus Intercontinental Swimming Race never stops nearly every year. In addition to these countries, ​for the first time, swimmers from Indonesia, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, and the Philippines have applied to paddle between the two continents.

How Can We Apply for the Race?

For auditions, candidates are able to make an appointment at bogazici.olimpiyatkomitesi.org.tr which is ​the official website for the race. Generally, applications start in April. As the race catches a great deal of attention from all over the world, there is not always enough vacancy. For that reason, there is a limitation. Applications are limited to 1200 for Turkish people and 1200 for foreign people. Last year, the quota became filled in 28 minutes as soon as the applications started.

How Will You Get Elected for the Race?

Nearly 3 thousand candidates for the 1200 Turkish swimmer quota compete in the elections to be held in Istanbul, Samsun, Adana, Ankara, and Izmir. The first one is held in Istanbul and, the last one is held in Izmir. As a result of this preselection, out of 3000 applicants, only 1200 of them will be able to become a candidate for the race.

How to Spend Quality Time in Istanbul?

If you can’t decide what to do to spend a good time and enjoy your trip to Istanbul, Bosphorus offers you many options. The best one of them is the Bosphorus Cruise Tour. This tour includes a voyage starting from Eminönü Galata Bridge to Anatolian poplar.

What’s the Route of the Tour?

For the route, you have different options. First of all, you can choose a route that includes a tour that starts from Eminönü and goes on with Karakoy, Kadikoy, Uskudar, and Besiktas respectively.​ You can reach the necessary information about the Current City Lines Ferry Routes, Timeline, Fees at ​http://www.sehirhatlari.istanbul/tr​.

Short Bosphorus Tour on a Ferry

To have a tour of Bosphorus, ferries are great options. Short Bosphorus tours with the City Lines Ferry start at Eminonu Pier at 2:30 p.m. and stop by Uskudar and Ortakoy piers, respectively. On the way back, stop by Ortakoy and Uskudar Piers and the tour ends at Eminönü Pier at 4.30 p.m. It lasts for 2 hours.



Long Bosphorus Tour on a Ferry

Long Bosphorus tours with the City Lines Ferry start at Eminönü Pier at 10.35 a.m and stop by Beşiktaş, Üsküdar, Kanlıca, Sarıyer, Rumelikavagi and Anadolu Kavagi Pier respectively. Anadolu Kavagi is reached at 12.25p.m, where a break is given until 3 p.m. On the way back, stop by Anadolu Kavagi, Rumelikavagi, Sariyer, Kanlica, Uskudar and Besiktas piers and the tour ends at Eminonu Pier at 4.40 p.m. It lasts for 6 hours.

If your path ever crosses with Istanbul, don’t forget to enjoy it as much as possible, participate in one of the most exciting swimming races, have a peaceful dinner by the Bosphorus and lastly, take a Bosphorus tour. It’s easy to get used to Istanbul but it’s hard to leave! Thankfully, Istanbul is always there to embrace its visitors.

Istanbul’s Rivers and Lakes


Istanbul is a beautiful city that has many natural wonders in it that await to be discovered and visited by the curious and adventurous. One kind of these natural wonders would be the waters, the lakes, and rivers of this great and ancient city. Sightseeing and leisure walks are a favorite activity of the locals to do around the lakes, but also there is birdwatching in some of the lakes is Istanbul is on the way of seasonal migration of many bird species. Unfortunately, it is deemed unsafe and it is prohibited to swim in these lakes and rivers, although there are some of the lakes that are allowed to swim in, as the waste of this city of 15 million goes through them and on the rivers there’s too much boat traffic in order to swim safely. There are 3, somewhat natural(more on that further down), lakes all on the European, many other dam lakes and 32 rivers within the borders of Istanbul. The “somewhat” natural lakes of Istanbul are;

  • Lake Terkos (also known as Lake Durusu)
  • Lake Kucukcekmece
  • Lake Buyukcekmece

There’s also fishing and angling in the natural and dam lakes of Istanbul, the most common fish types are:

  • Squalius Cephalus
  • Common Bream
  • Black Sea Sprat
  • Barbus Cyclolepis
  • Alburnus Istanbulensis


The lakes and rivers of Istanbul are the leisure places that present a natural way to pass time and enjoy the city in another aspect. The beautiful nature around these is lush with greenery thanks to the humidity of the city and how the waters feed the plant. Some of the other activities that can be done around and on these waters are:

  • Camping
  • Forest trekking on lake and riverside
  • Hiking around the hills that form the valleys around the dam lakes
  • Sunbathing
  • Boating
  • Relaxing

The “somewhat natural” aspect of these lakes is that they were not formed like how lakes generally form; a valley filling with the waters of the rivers flowing through. These lakes were all bays with connection to the sea, with time these bays were blocked off from the sea by the cumulation of sand and gravel at their mouths, thus becoming freshwater and semi freshwater lakes. For example, the largest of these lakes is Lake Terkos on the Blacksea shore, which has an area covering 10 sq/mi, is fed by 2 rivers and it is one of the biggest water sources of the city, was a bay of the Blacksea that was cut off from it, thus becoming a lake.



Watersports such as canoeing, pedal boating, rowing, and paramotoring are done on these lakes in the warmer months between March and November and the lakes are fuller on these months so this is the best period to enjoy them.

The Lakes

Terkos Lake, which is located between Arnavutkoy and Catalca districts of Istanbul, is now also known as Durusu Lake. Terkos Lake, which is fed by Kanlı Creek, Belgrad Creek, Baskoy Creek, and Ciftlikkoy Creek, is a very large lake. The Lake, which also hosts various animal species around, species such as the endangered Siberian swan and the great spotted eagle continue their existence. Terkos Lake, with its lush nature and serene environment, is rushed to by Istanbulites, especially on weekends.

Terkos Lake

Terkos Lake is the result of a complex valley leaving the Black Sea with a low threshold over time, also meets Istanbul’s drinking water needs. On the weekends, many families prefer Terkos Lake for a picnic. Besides picnic, angling and canoeing there are other activities to be done in and around the lake. In addition to all these, hunting sports are also carried out at certain times of the year in Lake Terkos.

With its wonderful nature, Terkos Lake is one of the rare places to spend stress-free time in Istanbul. If one day you’re visiting Istanbul, don’t forget to stop by Terkos Lake as well.

Buyukcekmece Lake is an abalone lake in Marmara Region, in the southern part of the Catalca district. The lake is used as one of the drinking water sources of Istanbul. The lake has been deepened with structures built by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. A dam was built on the sea leg of the lake.



The river (Karasu, Delice Stream), which flows south from the Catalca region, was formed a bay when the downward ground stood below the rising sea level, and then the front was blocked by a blockage made up of gravel, sand, and clay in the middle part of the bay. On this blockage, there is an opening that connected the lake to the sea and the Kanuni Sultan Suleyman(Suleiman the Magnificent) Bridge, a multi-arched historical bridge, passes over it. Buyukcekmece Dam is located where Buyukcekmece Lake meets the Marmara Sea. This lake is a slightly salty lake, with sloughs, and dense reeds between the dam and the sea. Fish are also caught in the lake. While there were 30 species of fish in the lake in the past, this number currently has 15 species, 4 of which are foreign species. There’s also birdwatching around the shores of this lake.

The Buyukcekmece Lake is connected by a thin and shallow canal between the Kaldırım Tip in the east and Bababurun Tip in the west. The dam built in front of the lake nowadays completely cuts the connection between the lake and the sea. Buyukcekmece lake is an old valley mouth that has become a bay after being overrun by the sea and then gained a lagoon feature (a ria). The shore of the lake is close to the middle of the bay.

Lakes Buyukcekme and Kucukcekmece

The coast of Buyukcekmece Bay, which extends in the northeast direction of the west coast and is suitable for the accumulation of sand and pebbles in this direction, on the other hand, the shore between Baba Cape and Kumburgaz is not suitable for carrying similarly sand and pebble towards the east side a blockage cord was not formed. Nevertheless, there is an accumulation that enables the narrowing between the Mimarsinan and Buyukcekmece settlements. At this point, the bay has been divided into two, and the northern part has become a lagoon. The famous bridge of Mimarsinan is located near the bay of the lake, just next to the new bridge. Buyukcekmece Lake, which used to be one of the most important stake net fishing of Istanbul, has turned into a dam lake today, and its natural area has reached 16.6 sq/mi after the construction of the dam and the collection of water in 1987.

The name of the lake “Buyukcekmece” comes from the times when the lake did not have a bridge, large rafts were used to ferry across it by hand, called a “drawer”(Cekmece).



Kucukcekmece Lake, which is located between Kucukcekmece and Avcilar and Esenyurt districts of Istanbul, which has the same name as the location in which it is stated, is a Marmara Region lake. Kucukcekmece Lake is located 10 miles west of the city and at sea level, has a length of about 6 miles, a width of 3 miles, a surface area of ​6 sq/mi and a maximum depth of 72 ft.

There is a small blockage of sand and pebbles between the sea and the lake. This line, which serves as a bridge between the Marmara Sea and Kucukcekmece Lake, is interrupted in the part of the lake that allows excess water to flow into the sea. In addition to transferring the excess water of the lake to the sea, it also enables the water to be transported from the sea to the lake in cases such as water decrease in the lake or overflow of seawater. Because of this, the waters of Kucukcekmece Lake are slightly salty.

Kucukcekmece Lake, where the Nakkas Creek, Sazli Creek, and Eskinoz streams are located in the north, is fed with these streams along with the seawater. In the eastern part of the lake, Istanbul’s suburban districts, Halkali, Kucukcekmece, Soguksu, Menekse, and Florya are located. In Florya district, there are a few beaches set up for touristic purposes.

Archaeological studies and various researches are carried out by many universities and research institutes in Kucukcekmece Lake, which has a long history. In addition, Kucukcekmece Lake has been the subject of many legends, especially the “Kucukcekmece legend”(Legend says that there is a “minaret” in the lake).

The city named Bathenoa, which is thought to have been destroyed as a result of the big earthquake in 557 A.D., is estimated to be located under the Kucukcekmece Lake. In the archaeological studies, the ruins of this city and the era and lighthouse structures have emerged. The fact that Bathenoa city is a port city proves the accuracy of these ruins.

Kucukcekmece Lake, which is considered as one of the natural beauties of the city, is also of great importance in terms of its geographical location.

The Rivers

There are a total of 32 rivers in Istanbul and none of them can be considered large. The largest is the Riva creek. It stems from the region of Kocaeli and pours into the Black Sea near Cayagzi (Riva) Village. Its length is 40 miles. Yesilcay Creek (Agva), Canak Creek flows into the Black Sea in Uludere west of sile. İstinye Creek and Buyukdere Creek (10 miles), Kagithane Creek (11 miles) and Alibey Creek (0.5 miles) pouring into the Golden Horn, Sazlidere Creek pouring into Kucukcekmece Lake, İstrasca River pouring into Terkos Lake are the important streams of Istanbul.
There are also streams, many of which are places of excursion and entertainment. Kurbagalidere (12 miles) in Kadikoy, Goksu, Kucuksu (10 miles), Elmalı, Baltalimanı (9.6 miles), Belgrade, Sariyer streams in the Bosphorus are small streams. Here is a list of all streams in Istanbul;

  • Alibey Creek
  • Fener Creek (also known as Silivri Stream or Suluklu Creek)
  • Haramidere Creek
  • Kemerdere Creek
  • Lomborloz Creek
  • Cayirbasi Creek
  • Kagithane Creek
  • Pot Creek
  • Kusdili Creek (Kurbagali Dere)
  • Tavukcu Creek
  • Ayamama Creek
  • Riva Creek
  • Sazlidere Creek
  • Goksu Creek
  • Kucuksu Creek
  • Halkali Creek
  • Nakkasdere Creek
  • Eskinoz Creek
  • Ambarli Creek
  • Menekse Creek
  • Hasanoglu Creek
  • Hamamdere Creek
  • Topuz Creek
  • Kurudere Creek
  • Cakil Creek
  • Istranca Creek
  • Karasu Creek
  • Sarisu Creek
  • Hiciv Creek
  • Agva Creek
  • İstinye Creek
  • Uludere Creek


To be clear, we will not talk about all the rivers in Istanbul, some of them are too small to have any real information about them except that they are connecting to other larger rivers or being small arms of other bigger streams, by which enlarging them. Some of the rivers that have no bigger impact on the city other than being the water source of the local neighborhood in the past. Some of them dried altogether leaving just damp patch of earth where they used to be, the beds of the dried rivers and streams have become settlements long ago and the ones that were too slim just got redirected into bigger canals. Here are some of the important ones.

Alibey Creek merges with Kagıthane Creek in Istanbul, forming the Golden Horn. Its sources are located in the hilly area near Tayakadin, in the northern part of the Catalca Peninsula, and from there it flows to the southeast. Since the upper and middle grounds are buried in the plateau, an embankment was attempted in this part to partially meet the water need of Istanbul. The downward slope has expanded and the floor and the slope of the valley are covered with residential and business suburbs of Istanbul. There is a large thermal power plant in Silahtar, where the stream meets Kagithane Creek.

Alibey Creek

Alibey Creek attracts attention with its unique natural beauty located in Istanbul’s Eyup district. The surroundings of the stream are covered with pine trees and it is a peaceful place where the residents often come to have a picnic. Although the dam is connected to the Eyup district, it is located within the borders of the Gazi District in Sultangazi. This is famous for the Magola Aqueduct, built by Mimar Sinan 450 years ago.

Kagithane Creek

Kagithane Creek is a small river in Istanbul. It originates from a source in the east of Terkos Lake. It passes through the districts of Sisli and Eyupsultan then flows into the Golden Horn in Kagithane. It is rumored that the creek, known as Barbisos during the Byzantine period, started to be referred to as the Kagithane Creek due to the paper factory around it during the Ottoman period. (Kagit means paper in Turkish) Today, on the edges of the stream, there is a dense settlement around, where were covered with large meadows in the past. The horses belonging to the palace were grazed in these meadows. The creek was one of the main promenade places for the people of Istanbul. There were boat rides in it. Ottoman traveler Evliya Celebi talks about Kagithane Creek with all these features in the section he describes Istanbul in his book Seyahatname.



Kusdili Creek or Kurbagalidere is one of the main streams flowing into the Sea of Marmara on the Anatolian side of Istanbul. Kusdili Creek, is approximately 9 km long, takes its source from Kucukbakkalkoy on the skirts of Kayis Mountain. After growing with the waters coming from Mimi Creek and Kucukcamlica, it reaches the Marmara Sea in the north of Kalamis Bay.


Kusdili Creek

Today, it is mostly included in a channel. The upper part of the stream, where water increases after rainy days, is almost completely dry in summer. Today, the boats coming from Kalamis Bay can only pass 100 ft under the Kurbagali Creek Bridge, which was formerly called Kasr-i Ali Bridge.



Ayamama Creek is a river located on the European side of Istanbul. It originates from a source in the eastern parts of the Basaksehir district. It flows from Bagcilar and Bahcelievler districts and pours its waters into the Marmara Sea within the borders of Bakirkoy district.


Ayamama Creek

Ayamama Creek, flowing since millennia as a rushing river, has shrunk and diminished over a long period of time. It continues to exist in the present day as a small creek. The name of the stream comes from a saint, Agios Mamas (Saint Mamas) who was born and raised in the village of Mamasum, or Gokce village as it is known today of Aksaray in ancient Cappadocia, during the Byzantine period. He was a Christian who got slaughtered by pagan Romans because he adopted the teaching of Jesus.

Another rumor of how this creek got its name is the attribution of the “Mamas” with the word “Mary” in ancient Greek thus making it “Holy Mary”

Riva Creek or Cayagzi Creek is a creek located on the Kocaeli Peninsula in the north of the Marmara region. It flows into the Blacksea in the district of Beykoz where it pours into the sea, there is a Cayagzi (old Riva) quarter of Beykoz of the same name.


Riva Creek

The stream forms the Omerli Dam Lake in the Pendik district of Istanbul. This reservoir meets 48% of the drinking water needs of Istanbul. It has a total length of 45 miles. After Omerli Dam Lake, the surroundings are covered with mostly forest. The remaining areas are agricultural areas and pastures. It is suitable for boating as it is fairly calm and has a large surface. There are also local fishing activities along the creek.



Goksu Creek is the stream flowing from the Anadoluhisari district of Beykoz, a district on the Anatolian side of the Bosphorus. It is a quiet natural wonder with its trees and centuries-old plane trees that remain green on the coast even in winter. The name of Goksu Creek goes back to Byzantine times. During the Byzantine Empire, the name Goksu was derived from the name Potamion, the small river. The stream, which pours in the Bosphorus right next to the castle in Anadoluhisari, provides an environment where you can spend a pleasant time both in a fishermen’s shelter and in places built on its edge. Goksu Creek and its surroundings are valued as the most beautiful parts of the district. The Goksu and Kucuksu promenade areas, which spread from the coasts to the hills of the district, are preferred by both residents and visitors from other parts of Istanbul. Especially in the spring and summer, you can eat fresh seafood at the restaurants near Goksu Creek and have a good time with your loved ones.


Goksu Creek

Where Goksu pours in the sea, there is a beautiful and special place, Agva.
“Agva” comes from the Latin word aqua. Because Agva is a small and cozy town surrounded by two creeks and sea that make it “have something to do with heaven”. Located on the shore of the Black Sea, 22 miles away from Sile, Agva is located between Goksu and Yesilcay creeks that both originate from Izmit. If you come to this small earth paradise between holiday resorts close to Istanbul and stay in one of the log houses by the lake, you are sure to find the inner peace you are looking for if you sit on the rock in the lighthouse and watch the view.


Agva

Besides the calm of Agva, the best part is both having the opportunity to swim in the near Blacksea and being surrounded by a natural wonder like Goksu stream. While traveling by boat in Goksu, you can go fishing, on the one hand, go to the other side of Goksu by raft, you can reach the point where it joins the sea either by canoe/sea bike or by motorboat. If you visit there as a group of friends, the motorboat is a good idea, but if you want to sail through Goksu in all that silence, the classic boat would be a much better idea.



Unfortunately, as you can tell from what we’ve gone through until now most of the rivers, creeks, and streams of Istanbul got surrounded by industrial zones and got closed off in canals to block the smell of the chemicals released from the factories. In a city as huge as this, it is a sad reality. Fortunately, there are still some left that can be enjoyed for their natural aspect and that they are the main source of water for the forests around them.

But do not let that discourage you from visiting and adventuring to find out what you can do to hang out on and around these freshwater sources of the city. You can do lots of walking in the refreshing nature around the waters, you can enjoy catching some freshwater fish in Istanbul to have some change form the sea fish. You can do many watersports that use boats on these waters and find that you enjoy being in sync with the natural beauty around.

The Population of Istanbul


Istanbul, with a population of 14,968,000 (2019) people is the largest city of Turkey and the 5th most crowded city in the world. The European side of the city is where 64.9% of its inhabitants live, the rest, 35.1%, live on the Anatolian side. It is also one of the most visited cities in the world by tourists, it hosted nearly 77 million foreign tourists in the last decade. Istanbul’s population is also very diverse, both ethnically and religiously. Being an ancient city it houses people from every background and denomination.

Istanbul houses more than 14 million people, this population is dispersed throughout the cities counties. Some of the counties of Istanbul are more populated than some cities in the world, of course not all counties are immensely crowded like some but in order to house the population some of them had to become larger than some cities. The dispersion of the population by county is as follows from the most populated to least populated;

  • Esenyurt: 954.579
  • Kucukcekmece: 792.821
  • Bagcilar: 745.125
  • Pendik: 711.894
  • Umraniye: 710.280
  • Bahcelievler: 611.059
  • Sultangazi: 534.565
  • Uskudar: 531.825
  • Maltepe: 513.316
  • Gaziosmanpasa: 491.962
  • Kadikoy: 482.713
  • Kartal: 470.676
  • Basaksehir: 460.259
  • Esenler: 450.344
  • Avcılar: 448.882
  • Kagithane: 448.025
  • Fatih: 443.090
  • Sancaktepe: 436.733
  • Atasehir: 425.094
  • Eyupsultan: 400.513
  • Beylikduzu: 352.412
  • Sariyer: 347.214
  • Sultanbeyli: 336.021
  • Zeytinburnu: 293.574
  • Gungoren: 289.441
  • Arnavutkoy: 282.488
  • Sisli: 279.817
  • Bayrampasa: 274.735
  • Tuzla: 267.400
  • Cekmekoy: 264.508
  • Buyukcekmece: 254.103
  • Beykoz: 248.260
  • Beyoglu: 233.323
  • Bakırkoy: 229.239
  • Silivri: 193.680
  • Besiktas: 182.649
  • Catalca: 73.718
  • Sile: 37.692
  • Adalar: 15.238

As you can deduct by that list, some of the counties of Istanbul are more populated than many cities of the world and given the area that Istanbul is established on, it would be safe to make the deduction that Istanbul is one of the most populated and dense cities in the world. Extending between Europe and Asia so it is no wonder that, being situated at the crossroads of many ancient trade routes, maritime or land, and this dense population is consisted of many diverse ethnicities, with some who can trace their roots back centuries.


Ortakoy Mosque

What is the reason for the population diversity in Istanbul? The first settlement in the piece of land that is known as Istanbul today was established 3000 years ago by the Thracians, it was called Lygos back at that time. Since then, Istanbul became one of the cities that empires and kingdoms most sought to conquer. It became a capital for 3 major empires in the past Ottoman Empire, Byzantine Empire and the Roman Empire which of course over time lead to the populace of the town becoming diversified.

The Diversity

Today, Istanbul’s population consists of more than 15.5 million people. The majority of the population consists of Turks, about 70 percent, the largest minority are the Kurds. The real “natives” of Istanbul are considered the Greeks however, one of the smallest minorities. They are the decedents of the Byzantine Empire. Most of them are Orthodox Christians that are the congregation of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Istanbul, which dates back to the Byzantine Empire. The Patriarchate once was the center for the Orthodoxes of the world, which makes Istanbul the Vatican of the Orthodox denomination in a matter of speech. Here’s a list of the ethnicities in Istanbul;

  • Turks: 10.5 Million
  • Kurds: 3.25 Million
  • Armenians: 40.000
  • Sephardic Jews: 20.000
  • Greeks: 2000
  • The rest of the population consists of other Anatolian ethnic minorities such as Georgians, Lazs, Turkmens, etc.

Fener Greek High School

The major part of Istanbul’s population consists of Muslims that include the majority of Turks and the biggest minority of the Kurds. The reason why these people are not considered the “natives” is that 11 million people emigrated from every part of Turkey to Istanbul in the last 50 years. The population of Istanbul by Religious denomination can be listed as below:

  • Muslims: 13 Million
  • Christians: 150.000
  • Jews: 20.000
  • And about 10% of the population is not part of any religion, they nominate themselves as Atheists and Theists.

Before the difference between the population of the Muslims and the Orthodoxes was not so widely spread to consider either a minority or minority. In order to better understand how the city was roughly balanced, so to say, in demographics, we need to look at how a city’s borders evolve throughout time. When the city was still newly established as the capital of the Ottoman Empire after the conquest, the city was considered to be the space within the fortifications, but after receiving the influx of people to the new capital the city had to grow. With time the Anatolian side of the Bosporus became to be considered part of the city instead of a settlement across the city, then the inequality in the religious demographic was well and truly clear.


Blue Mosque

There are other minorities in Istanbul with diverse denominations. After the Greeks, the Armenians, and the Sephardi Jews are the foremost minorities in Istanbul. The Armenians in Istanbul originate mostly from the territories that belonged to the ancient Kingdom of Armenia, they emigrated to Istanbul from the different parts of the Ottoman Empire and settle there until this day. They follow the council of the Armenian Patriarchate in Istanbul. The Sephardi Jews of Istanbul originate from Spain, they are decedents of those who fled from the Spanish Inquisition.

Where Do The People Live?

The minorities of Istanbul are dispersed in the diverse part of the city. The different ethnicities, religious denominations prefer to live close to one another in order to form communities, this is the case in every major city of the world, you just have to Google all the different Chinatowns that exist.

The Greeks

Of course, the Greeks of Istanbul are not all situated in one or two locations but as I stated previously they formed communities, and such communities generally form around a religious center important to the people forming it. Fener Ecumenical Patriarchate is one such place that is at the core of the Greek community formed in Fener. In Fener, you can see the architectural differences of the historical buildings from the building in other neighborhoods of the city.



Another neighborhood where the Christians formed a sizeable community is Balat. Here the Greeks and the Bulgarians live together forming an amalgam of ethnicities that are close to each other.



The Jews

The historic place of the Jews in Istanbul begins after the conquest of the city by the Turks, they fled the Spanish Inquisition, at the time Spain had one of the largest Jewish populations in the world.

Galata
With its widest borders, Galata is shown as the region that covers the hill where Kasimpasa and Galatasaray-Beyoglu are located, stretching from the northern coast of the Golden Horn to the beginning of the Bosporus on the Rumeli side. Galata, dating back to the 11th century; It is a district where Jews such as Balat and Hasköy are densely located. In the 11th century, the Byzantine Empire forced the Jews to reside in Galata-Pera (Beyoglu). As of this date, Galata has become an important center for Jews. The Jews continued to live in Galata, where the majority of the population was composed of Greeks, Armenians, and Europeans. Galata, where about 500 Jewish families lived in the 19th century, became an important Jewish settlement with Jewish families from other districts. This situation continued until the 1950s then, the Jewish population in this region rapidly decreased as the Jews migrated to Israel, and those with good economic status preferred neighborhoods such as Nisantasi, Taksim and Sisli. However, due to the fact that it was a dense Jewish settlement in its time, it still continues to exist with many synagogues and education institutions in this district.

Hasköy

Hasköy (Picridion) is one of the oldest Jewish districts. During the II. Crusade, a Jewish neighborhood in Hasköy is mentioned. The Jews brought from Thessaloniki and Safed after the conquest of Istanbul were settled in Hasköy. Jews who were homeless after the Bahçekapı fire on May 20, 1606, were also transferred to Hasköy. From this date on in Istanbul
After many fires, Jews migrated to this area (1660–1715–1756). Until the 19th century, Hasköy has been an important settlement for Jews. It is said that in this century, there was approximately 25 thousand Jewish population in Hasköy. However, the families who progressed from the economical perspective towards the end of the century started to move to Beyoglu. With the establishment of the State of Israel and the attraction of the region, migrations have continued to increase since the 1940s. Today, there are about 100 elderly and 2-3 tradesmen in need of care in the elders’ dormitory. In this region, the Kalha Kados Kusta Bene Mikra Synagogue of Karay Jews, and the Mahalem Synagogue of Rabbinic Jews, which was restored and opened on June 6, 1994, are still active. In addition, there is a Jewish Cemetery that covers a very large area in Ciksalin District.



The Density

  • Zeytintepe 96.000 sq/mi
  • Fatih 89.500 sq/mi
  • Fevzi Cakmak 86.603 sq/mi
  • Findikli 61.192 sq/mi

The population in Istanbul is not only one of the most diverse in the world but also one of the densest too. The urban density is 15,290 people per square mile. While the southern coasts of Istanbul and the Bosphorus region are the regions with the highest population density, the lowest ones are the northern coast. The Zeytintepe neighborhood of Zeytinburnu is the most densely populated neighborhood of Istanbul, with a population of over 96 thousand per sq/mi. This is followed by the Fatih neighborhood of Esenler and the Marshal Fevzi Çakmak neighborhoods of Güngören, with a population of 89,500 and 86,603, respectively. The neighborhood with the highest population density on the Anatolian side is the Fındıklı neighborhood of Maltepe. Fındıklı neighborhood is in the 85th place in the general order. All 3 neighborhoods with the lowest density are located in Şile. These neighborhoods are only 5,6 and 6 people per km2 in Esenceli, Avcıkoru, and Darlık respectively. The Fatih neighborhood of Çatalca is the lowest density neighborhood of the European side with a population of 7 people per sq/mi.



The Age And Gender Demographics

Istanbul, which had a population of 1 million 78 thousand people in 1945, reached 1 million 533 thousand in 1955 with a population explosion after 1950 it reached 7 million 309 thousand in 1990 with an increase of 40-50 thousand in the following periods. The population reached 9 million 199 thousand in 1997. In the 2000 census, it was a city with a population of over 10 million.
In Istanbul, which has received 11 million immigrants in the last fifty years, 82 citizens from Turkey live together. Turkey’s mosaic of people city; From Sivas to Trabzon, from Iğdır to Çanakkale, 12 million 573 thousand 836 people live here from all over the country. Only 2 million 167 thousand 572 of them are registered in the Istanbul population. The reason for the high number of Istanbul residents is that many citizens register their children in the Istanbul register to easily carry out their governmental transactions smoother. Sivas ranks first among the cities that migrated to the city. While 681 thousand 214 Sivas live in the city, Kastamonu follows with 516 thousand 556 people. The number of Sivas, Sinop, Bayburt, Ardahan, Erzincan, Giresun and Kastamonu people living in Istanbul is more than the population of their own provinces.


Hagia Sophia

Istanbul’s male population is 7,790,256 , Istanbul’s female population is 7,729,011. The average lifespan of the Istanbulites is 78,7 which can be considered higher than the rest of the world and can be counted as an average lifespan if compared to developed countries of the world. The average age of the Istanbulites is 33,07 so it would be fair to say that Istanbul is generally a young city.

Istanbul has 39 districts, 14 of which are on the Anatolian side and 25 on the European side. When the 39 districts of Istanbul are examined according to the data of 2017 in terms of population number, Esenyurt (846.492) has the highest population and Adalar (14.907) has the lowest population. 64.72% (9,726,373) of the inhabitants of Istanbul are on the European side; 35.28% (5.302.858) reside on the Anatolian Side. Istanbul is the 5th most populous city in the world in the list of most populated cities according to its population.

The city structure and shape of Istanbul are constantly changing. During the Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods, significant regeneration and growth occurred in the historical peninsula of Constantinople, Galata (Pera, later called Beyoğlu), Chalcedon (Kadıköy) and Hrisopolis (Üsküdar). In ancient times, all districts of current Istanbul were independent cities. Today, Istanbul can be accepted as the metropolitan state of Constantinople because the city has been expanded and renewed since then.

The very high structures that have been built in recent years have been built considering the rapid growth of the population. Due to the rapid expansion of the city, housing usually proceeds out of the city. The city’s highest multi-story offices and residences are gathered in Levent, Mecidiyeköy and Maslak districts on the European Side. Numerous shopping centers have been gathered in Levent and Etiler. An important part of Turkey’s largest companies and banks are located in this region.



Starting from the second half of the 20th century, the construction of summer houses and luxury mansions near the sea has been accelerated, especially on the Anatolian side. Bağdat Caddesi in the district of Kadıköy has many shopping centers and restaurants with its width and length. This has contributed positively to the development of the region in these developments. This is also the biggest factor of the population growth in recent years with migration from Anatolia. Today, 64.9% of the people of Istanbul live on the European Side.

Istanbul is also one of the cities that attract tourists by the millions, the city hosted more than 77 million tourists in the last decade, that means that more than the population of Turkey visited its largest city. Here are the numbers of tourists that visited Istanbul by years:

  • 2015: 11.825 Million
  • 2016: 7.860 Million
  • 2017: 9.120 Million
  • 2018: 13.4 Million
  • 2019: 14 Million


Disasters That The Populace Experienced in History

There are earthquakes in the history of the city, where great destructions were experienced. The most important of these is the Great Istanbul Earthquake that occurred in 1509. The buildings were almost completely damaged in this earthquake where 10,000 people died. Another earthquake that marked the history of Istanbul occurred in 1766. The effect of the earthquake was so great that the structures that have become the symbol of Istanbul such as Topkapı Palace, Hagia Sophia, Eyüp Sultan Mosque and Grand Bazaar have suffered great damage. Although important earthquakes occurred in Istanbul after 1766, the earthquake in 1999 was the earthquake in 1999. Almost all the structures were damaged in the earthquake in which 18 thousand people died.

All in all, Istanbul is a very ancient, densely populated, historical, diversified metropolitan center at the crossing point from Asia to Europe, many people over millennia have crossed and settled here. If you want to experience the harmonical crowd that gives life to this great city you should come to visit and in order to explore maybe get lost is some of the old Greek neighborhoods or just stand between the Hagia Sophia and the Blue Mosque in order to better grasp the ages that modified and formed the city that is today.

This post provides information about the population of Istanbul.

Religion in Istanbul: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism


Istanbul was the last seat of the Islamic Caliphate, from 1517 to 1924, when the Caliphate was broken up and its forces were given over to the Turkish Parliament. The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople, a profound pioneer of the Eastern Orthodox Church since the fourth century AD, is situated in the Fener (Phanar) area. Additionally situated in Istanbul are the diocese supervisor of the Turkish Orthodox Church, the Armenian Patriarchate, and the Turkish Chief Rabbi (Hahambasi). Istanbul was once in the past likewise the seat of the Bulgarian Exarchate, before its autocephaly was perceived by other Orthodox houses of worship. In this article, we will talk about religion in Istanbul, their histories and churches, synagogues, and mosques in Istanbul. Keep reading!

As indicated by the 2000 evaluation, there were 2691 dynamic mosques, 123 dynamic houses of worship and 20 dynamic synagogues in Istanbul; just as 109 Muslim graveyards and 57 non-Muslim cemeteries. Religious minorities incorporate Greek Orthodox Christians, Armenian Christians, Catholic Levantines and Sephardic Jews. A few neighborhoods have been known with their sizeable populaces of these ethnic gatherings, for example, the Kumkapı neighborhood, which had a huge Armenian populace, the Balat neighborhood, which used to have a sizeable Jewish populace, the Fener neighborhood with a huge Greek populace, and a few neighborhoods in Nişantaşı and Pera, which had sizeable Levantine populaces. In certain quarters, for example, Ortaköy or Kuzguncuk, an Armenian church sits alongside a synagogue, and on the opposite roadside, a Greek Orthodox church is found next to a mosque.



Islam in Istanbul

The urban scene of Istanbul is molded by numerous networks. The most crowded significant religion is Islam. The primary mosque in Istanbul was worked in Kadıköy (antiquated Chalcedon) on the Asian side of the city, which was vanquished by the Ottoman Turks in 1353, an entire century before the success of Constantinople over the Bosphorus, on the European side. The primary mosque on the European side of Istanbul was worked inside the Rumelian Castle in 1452.

The principal excellent mosque which was worked in the city appropriate is the Eyüp Sultan Mosque (1458), while the main magnificent mosque inside the city dividers was the Fatih Mosque (1470) which was based on the site of the Church of the Holy Apostles, a significant Byzantine church which was initially edifice in the hour of Constantine the Great. Numerous other royal mosques were worked in the next hundreds of years, for example, the popular Süleymaniye Mosque (1557) which was requested by Suleiman the

Magnificent and structured by the incomparable Ottoman designer Mimar Sinan, and the celebrated Sultan Ahmed Mosque (1616) which is otherwise called the “Blue Mosque” for the blue tiles which decorate its inside. Istanbul was the seat of the Islamic Caliphate, somewhere in the range of 1517 and 1924. A portion of the individual things of Muhammad and the most punctual caliphs who tailed him are today saved in the Topkapı Palace, the Eyüp Sultan Mosque and a few other conspicuous mosques of Istanbul.



The triumph of the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453 empowered the Ottomans to merge their realm in Anatolia and Thrace. The Ottomans later resuscitated the title of caliph during the rule of Sultan Selim. Despite the nonattendance of a formal institutional structure, Sunni strict functionaries assumed a significant political job. Equity was administered by strict courts; in principle, the arranged arrangement of sharia directed all parts of life, at any rate for the Muslim subjects of the realm. The leader of the legal executive positioned straightforwardly beneath the sultan and was second in power just to the amazing vizier.

From the get-go in the Ottoman time frame, the workplace of terrific mufti of Istanbul advanced into that of Sheik ul-Islam (shaykh, or a pioneer of Islam), which had extreme locale over all the courts in the domain and therefore practiced authority over the translation and utilization of sharia. Legitimate suppositions articulated by the Sheik were viewed as complete translations.

Christianity in Istanbul

The city has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate since the fourth century AD, and keeps on filling in as the seat of some other Orthodox houses of worship, for example, the Turkish Orthodox Church and the Armenian Patriarchate. The city was once in the past likewise the seat of the Bulgarian Exarchate, before its autocephaly was perceived by other Orthodox houses of worship.

Following the Turkish success of Constantinople in 1453, the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II built up the Millet System, as indicated by which the diverse ethnic gatherings inside Constantinople and the remainder of the Ottoman Empire were to be represented by a gathering of organizations dependent on trust. For this reason, Mehmed II additionally established beforehand non-existent strict specialists, for example, the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1461. Prior, the Byzantines thought about the Armenian Church as an apostate and didn’t permit the Armenians to have chapels inside the dividers of Constantinople.



A few Armenian holy people, for example, Saint Narses, were banished and detained in the Princes’ Islands close to Constantinople, in the Sea of Marmara. With the Millet System, a lot of the inward issues in regards to these networks were doled out to the organization of these strict specialists, for example, the Ecumenical Patriarchate for the issues of every Orthodox Christian, the Armenian Patriarchate for the issues of the Armenian (and for quite a while additionally the Syriac) Christians, and later the Chief Rabbi for the undertakings of the Jews.

The regular daily existence of the Christians, especially the Greeks and Armenians, living in Istanbul changed essentially following the unpleasant clashes between these ethnic gatherings and the Turks during the Decline of the Ottoman Empire, which started during the 1820s and proceeded for a century. The contentions arrived at their finish in the decade somewhere in the range of 1912 and 1922; during the Balkan Wars, the First World War and the Turkish War of Independence. The city’s Greek Orthodox people group was absolved from the populace trade among Greece and Turkey in 1923 after the foundation of the Turkish Republic.

Nonetheless, a progression of uncommon limitations and assessments during the long periods of the Second World War (see, e.g., the riches charge Varlık Vergisi), and the Istanbul Pogrom of 1955 which caused the passings of 15 Greeks and the injury of 32 others, enormously expanded migration from Istanbul to Greece. In 1964, all Greeks without Turkish citizenship dwelling in Turkey (around 12,000) were extradited. Today, the majority of Turkey’s staying Greek and Armenian minorities live in or then again close to Istanbul. The quantity of the Armenians in Istanbul today adds up to around 40,000, while the Greek people group added up to somewhat more than 2,000 toward the start of the 21st century.



Close to the generally Catholic Levantines, who are the relatives of European (Genoese, Venetian, and French) merchants who built up exchanging stations during the Byzantine and Ottoman time frames, there is additionally a little, dissipated number of Bosphorus Germans. Various spots reflect past developments of various networks into Istanbul, most quite Arnavutköy (Albanian town), Polonezköy (Polish town) and Yenibosna (New Bosnia).

There were more than 40,000 Catholic Italians in Istanbul at the turn of the twentieth century, a figure which not just incorporated the relatives of the neighborhood Genoese and Venetian traders who lived here since the Byzantine and early Ottoman time frames, yet besides the various Italian laborers and craftsmen who went to the city from Italy during the nineteenth century. Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini came to Constantinople in 1832, and again in 1833.

Garibaldi lived in Beyoğlu and showed Italian, French, and Mathematics in the outside schools of this locale. Garibaldi likewise settled the Società Operaia Italiana di Mutuo Soccorso on May 17, 1863, in Beyoğlu, and turned into its first President (Mazzini was the second President). The Società Operaia Italiana di Mutuo Soccorso is as yet dynamic and is situated in its unique site, on a side road of Istiklal Avenue. The quantity of Istanbul’s Italians diminished after the finish of the Ottoman Empire for a few reasons.

The Turkish Republic never again perceived the exchange benefits that were given to the relatives of the Genoese and Venetian traders, and outsiders were never again permitted to work in Turkey in a wide number of segments, including numerous artisanship, where various Istanbulite Italians used to work. The Varlık Vergisi (Wealth Tax) of the World War II years, which forced higher levies on non-Muslims and outsiders in Turkey, additionally assumed a significant job in the relocation of Istanbul’s Italians to Italy—who despite everything live in the city, yet in far fewer numbers when contrasted and the mid-twentieth century.

The impact of the Italian people group of Istanbul, be that as it may, is as yet noticeable in the design of numerous quarters, especially Galata, Beyoğlu and Nişantaşı.



Judaism in Istanbul

The Sephardic Jews have lived in the city for more than 500 years, see the historical backdrop of the Jews in Turkey. The Sephardic Jews contributed a lot to the rising intensity of the Ottoman Empire by presenting new thoughts, strategies, and craftsmanship. The primary Gutenberg press in Istanbul was set up by the Sephardic Jews in 1493, who exceeded expectations in numerous regions, especially medication, exchange, and banking. The Camondo family was profoundly persuasive in the Ottoman financial area. The acclaimed Camondo Stairs on the Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Karaköy (Galata) was worked by them. More than 20,000 Sephardic Jews despite everything stay in Istanbul today.

Romaniotes and Ashkenazi Jews dwelled in Istanbul even before the Sephardim, however, their extent has since dwindled; today, only 1 percent of Istanbul’s Jews are Ashkenazi. The Avusturya Sinagogu (Austrian Synagogue), otherwise called the Aşkenaz Synagogue (Ashkenazi Synagogue) is one of the most acclaimed synagogues in Istanbul and stands apart with its intriguing engineering. A flood of Ashkenazi Jews came to Istanbul during the 1930s and 1940s after the ascent of Nazism in Germany which aggrieved the Ashkenazi Jews of focal and eastern Europe.

Today, a sum of 20 dynamic synagogues are to be found in the city, the most significant of them being the Neve Shalom Synagogue initiated in 1951, in the Beyoğlu quarter. The Turkish Grand Rabbi in Istanbul (as of now Ishak Haleva) manages network issues. An abatement in the number of inhabitants in the city’s Jewish people group happened after the autonomy of the State of Israel in 1948, however, the Turkish Jews who relocated to that nation assisted with setting up solid connections among Turkey and Israel.

The originators of the State of Israel and noticeable Israeli government officials, for example, David Ben-Gurion, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, and Moshe Shertok had all concentrated in the main Turkish schools of Istanbul in their childhood, in particular, Galatasaray High School and Istanbul University.



Churchs of Istanbul

  • Chora Church (Dervişali, Kariye Cami Sk. No:18, 34087 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of Christ Pantepoptes ( Cibali, Parmaklık Sk., 34083 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Crimea Memorial Church (Şahkulu, Serdar-ı Ekrem Cd. No:52, 34425 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Church of San Domenico (Azapkapı, 34421 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Church of St Euphemia (Binbirdirek, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Parkı, 34122 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Monastery of Gastria (Kocamustafapaşa, Teberdar Sk. No:11, 34098 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of Saint John the Baptist at Lips (Akşemseddin Mh., Adnan Menderes Blv., 34091 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of Saint John the Baptist at Stoudios (Yedikule, İmam Aşir Sok. No:1, 34107 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of Saint John the Baptist en to Trullo (Balat, Koltukçu Sk. No:4, 34087 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Martyrion of Hagios Karpos and Papylos (Kocamustafapaşa, Bestekar Hakkı Sk. No:1, 34098 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of Living Water (Cumhuriyet, Bilgiç Sk. No:11/B, 34380 Şişli/İstanbul)
  • Church of St. Mary of Constantinople (Ayvansaray, Kuytu Sk., 34087 Fatih/İstanbul)


  • Church of San Paolo (Bereketzade, 34421 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Hagia Sophia (Sultan Ahmet, Ayasofya Meydanı No:1, 34122 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Bulgarian St. Stephen Church (Balat, Mürselpaşa Cd. No:10, 34087 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of Hagios Theodoros (Hoca Gıyasettin, Vefa Caddesi Tirendaz Sokak, 34134 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of Hagias Theodosias en tois Dexiokratus (Yavuz Sultan Selim, Vakıf Mektebi Sk. No:16, 34083 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of the Theotokos at Lips (Akşemseddin Mh., Adnan Menderes Blv., 34091 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of the Theotokos Eleousa (Zeyrek, İbadethane Sk. No:2, 34083 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Church of the Theotokos Kyriotissa (Kalenderhane, 16 Mart Şehitleri Cd. No:11, 34134 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • The Union Church of Istanbul (İstiklal Mahallesi, İstiklal Caddesi, Postacılar Sokak, 34440 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)

Synagogue of Istanbul

  • Ahrida Synagogue of Istanbul (Ayvansaray, Kürkçü Çeşmesi Sk. No:9, 34087 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Ashkenazi Synagogue of Istanbul (Müeyyedzade, Yüksek Kaldırım Cd. No:31, 34425 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Bakırköy Synagogue (Zeytinlik, Cumhuriyetçi Sk. No:4, 34140 Bakırköy/İstanbul)
  • Bet Avraam Synagogue (Hoca Paşa, İstasyon Arkası Sk. No:23, 34110 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Bet Nissim Synagogue (Kuzguncuk, İcadiye Cd., 34674 Üsküdar/İstanbul)
  • Bet Yaakov Synagogue (Heybeliada, Orhan Sk. No:8, 34973 Adalar/İstanbul)
  • Caddebostan Synagogue (Rasimpaşa, İzzettin Sk. No:61, 34716 Kadıköy/İstanbul)
  • Etz Ahayim Synagogue (Ortaköy, Europe TR, Muallim Naci Cd. No:6, 34347 Beşiktaş)
  • Hemdat Israel Synagogue (Kadıköy, İstanbul)
  • Hesed Le Avraam Synagogue (Büyükada-maden, Pancur Sk. No:15, 34970 Adalar/Asia)
  • Italian Synagogue (Bereketzade, Şair Ziya Paşa Cd. No:23, 34421 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Jewish Museum of Turkey (Bereketzade, Büyük Hendek Cd. No:39, 34421 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Kal Kados, Corapci Han Synagogue (Sirkeci, İstanbul)
  • Karaite Synagogue (Piri Paşa, Hasköy Cd., 34445 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Maalem Synagogue (Keçeci Piri, Harap Çeşme Sk. No:20, 34445 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Neve Shalom Synagogue (Bereketzade, Büyük Hendek Cd. No:39, 34421 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Yanbol Synagogue (Ayvansaray, Lavanta Sk. No:7, 34087 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Yeniköy Synagogue (Yeniköy, Köybaşı Caddesi cad no;132, 34464 Sarıyer/İstanbul)


Mosques of Istanbul

  • Altunizade Mosque, 1865 (Altunizade, Altunizade Cami, 34662 Üsküdar/İstanbul)
  • Atik Valide Mosque, 1583 (Validei Atik, Toptaşı Meydan Sk. No:1, 34664 Üsküdar/İstanbul)
  • Bayezid II Mosque, 1506 (Beyazıt, Yeniçeriler Cd., 34126 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Burmalı Mescit Mosque (Kalenderhane, Islah Sk. No:19, 34134 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Dolmabahçe Mosque, 1855 (Ömer Avni, Meclis-i Mebusan Cd. No:34, 34427 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Emirgan Mosque, 1781 (Emirgan, Doğru Muvakkithane Cd. No:3, 34467 Sarıyer/İstanbul)
  • Eyüp Sultan Mosque, 1458 (Merkez Mh, Cami Kebir Sk. No:1, 34050 Eyüp/İstanbul)
  • Fatih Mosque, 1470 (Ali Kuşçu, Hattat Nafiz Cd No:6, 34083, 34083 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Firuz Ağa Mosque, 1491 (Binbirdirek, Divan Yolu Cd., 34122 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Hadim Ibrahim Pasha Mosque, 1551 (Silivrikapı, Silivrikapı Cd. No:125, 34107 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Handan Agha Mosque, 15th century (Camiikebir, 34440 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Haseki Sultan Mosque, 1539 (Cerrah Paşa Mh., 34096 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Kara Ahmet Pasha Mosque, 1572 (Topkapı, Bican Bağcıoğlu Ykş. No:32, 34093 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex, 1580 (Kemankeş Karamustafa Paşa, Kemeraltı Cd. No:50, 34425 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Kırmızı Minare Mosque, probably 1591 (Piri Paşa, Kırmızı Minare Sk. No:11, 34445 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)


  • Küçük Mecidiye Mosque, 1843 (Yıldız, Çırağan Cd. No:87, 34349 Beşiktaş/İstanbul)
  • Laleli Mosque, 1783 (Kemal Paşa, Ordu Cd., 34134 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Mahmut Pasha Mosque, Eminönü, 1463 (Mollafenari, Vezirhan Cd. No:100, 34120 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Mesih Mehmed Paşa Mosque, 1585 (Hırka-i Şerif, Prof. Naci Şensoy Cd. 22 A, 34091 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Mihrimah Mosque, 1565 (Karagümrük, 34091 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Mihrimah Sultan Mosque (Üsküdar), 1548 (Mimar Sinan, 34664 Üsküdar/İstanbul)
  • Molla Çelebi Mosque, 1584 (Ömer Avni, Meclis-i Mebusan Cd. No:26, 34427 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Muhammad Maarifi Mosque, 1818 ( Kordonboyu, Ankara Cd. No:85, 34860 Kartal/İstanbul)
  • Murat Pasha Mosque, Aksaray, 1471 (Molla Gürani, Adnan Menderes Blv. No:1, 34093 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • New Mosque (Istanbul), 1665 (Rüstem Paşa, Yeni Cami Cd. No:3, 34116 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Nuruosmaniye Mosque, 1755 (Mollafenari, Vezirhan Cd. No:4, 34120 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Nusretiye Mosque, 1826 (Kılıçali Paşa, Meclis-i Mebusan Cd., 34425 Beyoğlu/İstanbul)
  • Ortaköy Mosque, 1856 (Mecidiye, Mecidiye Köprüsü Sk. No:1 D:1, 34347 Beşiktaş/İstanbul)
  • Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque, 1872 (İskenderpaşa, Atatürk Blv. No:3, 34080 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Piri Mehmed Pasha Mosque, 1530–31 (Piri Mehmet Paşa, 34594 Silivri/İstanbul)
  • Rüstem Pasha Mosque, 1563 (Rüstem Paşa, Hasırcılar Cd. No:62, 34116 Fatih/İstanbul)


  • Şehzade Mosque, 1548 (Kalenderhane, Şehzadebaşı Cd. No:44, 34134 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Şemsi Pasha Mosque, 1581 (Mimarsinan Mh., 34664 Üsküdar/İstanbul)
  • Sinan Pasha Mosque (Istanbul), 1555 (Sinanpaşa, Beşiktaş Cd. No:43, 34353 Beşiktaş/İstanbul)
  • Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Mosque, 1572 (Küçük Ayasofya Mahallesi, 34122 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Süleymaniye Mosque, 1558 (Süleymaniye Mah, Prof. Sıddık Sami Onar Cd. No:1, 34116 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Sultan Ahmed Mosque, 1616 (Sultan Ahmet, Atmeydanı Cd. No:7, 34122 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Teşvikiye Mosque, 1794 (Teşvikiye Mah., 34365 Teşvikiye /Şişli/Şişli/İstanbul)
  • Yavuz Selim Mosque, 1527/28 (Balat, Sultan Selim Cd. No:18, 34087 Fatih/İstanbul)
  • Yeni Valide Mosque, 1710 (Mimar Sinan, 34664 Üsküdar/İstanbul)
  • Yıldız Hamidiye Mosque, 1886 (Cihannüma, Serencebey Ykş. No:63, 34353 Beşiktaş/İstanbul)
  • Zal Mahmud Pasha Mosque, 1577 (Nişanca, Zalpaşa Cd. No:43, 34050 Eyüp/İstanbul)

Postal Codes of Istanbul


Everyone should know the postal code of the address. Unfortunately, most people neglect this. However, when a postal code is requested from a private company or an official institution, these numbers, which are searched by saying “what was this, a postal code” and seemed unnecessary, are our addresses. Postal codes differ according to each country. In Turkey, postal codes consist of 5 digits and this is the first 2 digits of the license plate code. For example, the postal code for Istanbul starts at 34000. In this article, we will share the postal codes of Istanbul’s neighborhoods and why postal codes are important. Keep reading!

While the postal code of Beşiktaş district in Istanbul continues as 34300, this code is completed as 34342 for Bebek and Bebek District in Beşiktaş. In other words, in Turkey, postal codes consisting of letters and numbers are very important for us, in some countries, which is used for the first time to avoid the wrongness in your address and to get to you faster, and then to get to the address where your mail will be parsed in an electronic environment much faster. Because postal culture has settled in many parts of the world and whether it is needed or not is used in the shipments. It is even used not only in postal but also in cargo shipments.

19 Mayis 34360
Abbasağa 34353
Acibadem 34660
Akatlar 34335
Akfirat 34959
Akincilar 34160
Aksaray 34096
Alemdağ 34794
Alibeyköy 34060
Alipaşa-Fener 34582
Altintepsi 34035
Altinşehir 34494
Altunizade 34662
Ambarli 34315
Anadoluhisari 34810
Arapcami 34421
Arnavutköy 34275 34345
Atakent 34307 34760
Ataköy 34158
Atalar 34862
Atatürk 34758 34764
Atişalani 34230
Avcilar 34310
Ayazağa 34396
Aydinevler 34854
Aydinli 34953
Ağva 34990
Aşağidudullu 34773
Bahçeköy 34473
Bahçelievler 34180 34688 34893
Bahçeşehir 34488
Balat 34087
Barbaros 34203
Bağcilar 34200
Başakşehir 34480
Bebek 34342
Beyazit 34126
Beykoz 34820
Beylerbeyi 34676
Beylikdüzü 34520
Binkiliç 34550
Bolluca 34287
Bostanci 34744
Bozkurt 34375
Boğazköy 34285
Bulgurlu 34696
Burgazada 34975
Büyükada 34970
Büyükbakkalköy 34858
Büyükdere 34453
Büyükçekmece 34500
Caddebostan 34728
Caferağa 34710
Celaliye(Kamiloba) 34584
Cevizli 34846
Cevizlik 34142
Cihangir 34433
Cumhuriyet 34186 34380 34699
Demirkapi 34214
Dolayoba 34896
Duatepe 34379
Durusu 34557
Eminönü 34110
Emirgan 34467
Erenköy 34738
Esenler 34220
Esentepe 34394 34870
Esenyali 34903
Esenyurt 34517
Esenşehir 34776
Etiler 34337
Eyüp 34050
Eyüpsultan 34885
Eğitim 34722
Fenerbahçe 34726
Feneryolu 34724
Ferah 34692
Ferhatpaşa 34888
Feriköy 34377
Fevziçakmak 34194
Feyzullah 34843
Fikirtepe 34720
Firuzköy 34325
Florya 34153
Gayrettepe 34349
Gaziosmanpaşa 34245
Göksu 34815
Göktürk 34077
Göztepe 34730
Gülsuyu 34848
Gültepe 34410
Gümüşpala 34320
Güneşli 34212
Güngören 34164
Gürpinar 34528
Gürsel 34400
Hadimköy 34555
Halaskargazi 34371
Halicioğlu 34445
Halideedip 34382
Halkali 34303
Hamidiye 34408
Haraççi 34281
Harbiye 34367
Heybeliada 34973
Hürriyet 34209
Ihlamurkuyu 34771
Kandilli 34684
Karabayir 34225
Karacaköy 34560
Karagümrük 34091
Kartal 34860
Kartaltepe 34145
Kasimpaşa 34440
Kayişdaği 34755
Kazimkarabekir 34766
Kağithane Merkez 34406
Kemalpaşa 34204
Kemankeş 34425
Kemerburgaz 34075
Kinaliada 34977
Kirazli 34210
Kirazlitepe 34682
Kiraç 34522
Kocamustafapaşa 34098
Kocasinan 34192
Kozyataği 34742
Koşuyolu 34718
Kumburgaz 34530
Kumkapi 34130
Kuzguncuk 34674
Küçükbakkalköy 34750
Küçükköy 34250
Küçükyali 34840
Küçükçekmece 34290
Levazim 34340
Levent 34330
Mahmutbey 34218
Mahmutpaşa 34120
Maslak 34398
Mecidiyeköy 34387
Mehmetakif 34920
Mehterçeşme 34515
Merdivenköy 34732
Merkezköy 34076 34283 34450 34494 34500 34540 34799 34829 34916 34980
Mevlana 34255
Meşrutiyet 34363
Mimarsinan 34535 34672 34935 34950
Muratbey 34545
Muratpaşa 34040
Muratreis 34664
Mustafakemal 34707
Namikkemal 34762
Necipfazil 34925
Numunebağ 34040
Okmeydani 34384
Ondokuzmayis 34736
Orhanli 34956
Orhantepe 34865
Ortaköy 34347
Osmanağa 34714
Osmangazi 34887
Osmaniye 34146
Pangalti 34373
Paşabahçe 34800
Pürtelaş 34427
Rami 34055
Rasimpaşa 34716
Rumelihisari 34470
Saadetdere 34513
Sahrayicedit 34734
Sanayi 34165 34235 34538
Sarigazi 34785
Sariyer 34450
Sefaköy 34295
Selimiye 34668
Selimpaşa 34590
Seyitnizam 34015
Seyrantepe 34418
Silivri 34570
Sirkeci 34112
Siyavuşpaşa 34182
Soğanli 34183
Soğanlik 34880
Suadiye 34740
Sultanahmet 34122
Sultangazi 34270
Sultançiftliği 34265
Tahtakale 34116
Taksim 34437
Tarabya 34457
Tarlabaşi 34435
Taşdelen 34788
Taşoluk 34283
Telsiz 34020
Tepecik 34537
Tersaneler 34944
Teşvikiye 34365
Tokatköy 34825
Topkapi 34010 34093
Topselvi 34873
Tozkoparan 34173
Turgutreis 34930
Türkali 34357
Uğurmumcu 34882
Vefa 34134
Yakacik 34876
Yakuplu 34524
Yali 34844
Yavuztürk 34690
Yayalar 34909
Yedikule 34107
Yenibosna 34197
Yenidoğan 34791
Yeniköy 34464
Yenisahra 34746
Yeniçamlica 34779
Yenişehir 34912
Yeşilköy 34149
Yeşilpinar 34065
Yildirim 34045
Yildiztabya 34240
Yukaridudullu 34775
Zeyrek 34083
Zeytinlik 34140
Zuhuratbaba 34147
Zübeydehanim 34260
Zümrütevler 34852
Çakmak 34774
Çamçeşme 34899
Çanta 34580
Çarşi 34890
Çatalca 34540
Çavuşbaşi 34830
Çağlayan 34403
Çekmeköy 34782
Çeliktepe 34413
Çengelköy 34680
Çiftlikköy 34562
Çirpici 34025
Çirçir 34070
Çobançeşme 34196
Çubuklu 34805
Örnek 34704
Ünalan 34700
İdealtepe 34841
İkitelli 34490
İncirtepe 34510
İnkilap 34768
İskenderpaşa 34080
İstasyon 34940
İstiklal 34430
İstinye 34460
İçerenköy 34752
İçmeler 34947
Şehremini 34104
Şeyhli 34906
Şile 34980
Şirinevler 34188
Şirintepe 34415
Şişli 34381

Postal Codes in Turkey

Postal codes in Turkey (Turkish: Posta Kodu) comprise of five digits beginning with the two-digit tag code of the areas followed by three digits to determine the area inside the locale of the region.

A postal code (likewise known locally in different English-talking nations all through the world as a postcode, postcode, PIN or ZIP Code) is a progression of letters or digits or both, at times including spaces or accentuation, remembered for a postal location to sort mail.

Why Postal Codes Should Be Known?

Each regulatory division keeps up its postal code for mail conveyance purposes. Having the right code is basic to your sends conveyance. Find the right postal codes for Turkey in the rundown above by tapping the goal district you are sending to.

The half-million representatives who work for the USPS depend vigorously on the five-or nine-digit ZIP codes for effective and solid mail conveyance. In this way, it bodes well that the expression “Postal division” would be identified with being zippy, which signifies “vivacious” or “enthusiastic.”



What “ZIP” Stands For?

“ZIP” is an abbreviation for Zone Improvement Plan. Notwithstanding, the USPS purposefully picked the abbreviation to demonstrate that mail ventures all the more immediately when senders mark the postal code on their bundles and envelopes. The general arrangement of ZIP codes utilized today was actualized in 1963. Before this framework, the USPS utilized an arrangement of postal zones, which was just material to enormous urban communities. This is the place the “improvement” part becomes possibly the most important factor.

The essential ZIP code has five digits. The initial three digits allude to a sectional community office (or SCF), which is essentially a system of super post workplaces. The entirety of the post workplaces that have those three digits in their ZIP code has their mail arranged and prepared by the equivalent SCF. The last two numbers assign the particular mail station inside an SCF’s domain.

During the 1980s another framework was presented called ZIP+4. Four extra digits (with a hyphen) were added to the fundamental code. This permitted senders to demonstrate a considerably increasingly exact area, for example, a specific square or high rise. The ascent in post office boxes likewise made this more prominent degree of exactness vital.

Istanbul Province: Geography, Topography, How to Get In and Around and Neighborhoods


Augusta, Antonina, Nova Roma, Byzantion, Byzantium, Constantinople lastly Istanbul… These energizing names remind the strange and captivating past of the city. Istanbul can be considered as the blend of the old and current city, just as Islamic and Mediterranean blend of societies in a charming air. There are just not many urban areas on the planet that can be so superb to encounter and appreciate as Istanbul.

Istanbul is found incompletely in Asia and the other part in Europe. Its topographical situation just as its rich history are answerable for an interesting blend of societies. Sightseers are rushing to encounter this otherworldly city loaded with contrasts for themselves, making it the fifth most famous traveler goal on the planet.

Istanbul offers an extraordinary encounter for its voyagers, with its beautiful day by day city life and dynamic nightlife. The wonderful outline of the city consolidates chronicled locales and landmarks, for example, Roman water systems, Byzantine places of worship, Venetian towers, Ottoman castles from the Byzantine, Ottoman and Turkish periods. Furthermore, the horizon covers grand minarets with high rises and courts. Also, particularly the Historical Peninsula and the Bosphorus will make you profoundly experience passionate feelings for the city.



Istanbul is additionally one of the most enthusiastic cities on the planet (having more than 15 million inhabitants) that offers assortment of intercontinental occasions, universal film, music and theater celebrations, worldwide biennials, and more than 80 historical centers and numerous craftsmanship displays exhibit of life, expressions, and history; including painting, model, photography and the sky is the limit from there.

Concerning eating out and gastronomy, it implies that you are one stage away from tasting the tasty dinners of the Turkish food, from hot and hot Anatolian and Aegean dishes naturally cooked with olive oil. Istanbul offers a wide scope of Turkish food at the assortment of entrenched, great and extravagance Istanbul cafés.

Concerning diversion and nightlife, it spins around huge numbers of the amusement settings that the city brings to the table. The nightlife in Istanbul has truly woken up as of late and local people will all reveal to you that the nightlife spreads out every which way all through the city. Concerning shopping, the assortment of the conventional and present-day items offered at the Ottoman’s begun recorded bazaars and current shopping centers makes the city a fascination community for shopping sweethearts.

Guide of Istanbul Province

1. Istanbul — the common capital, where 95% or a greater amount of the number of inhabitants in the territory lives

2. Anadolu Kavağı Anadolukavağı on Wikipedia — a lovely town with the ridge Yoros Castle upper east of Istanbul, close to the Black Sea

3. Ağva — at the furthest upper east of the region on the Black Sea, with beguiling guesthouses coating the banks of an emerald stream



4. Büyükçekmece — a lakeside suburb on the western finish of the urban spread of Istanbul, worth a visit for its stone scaffold, mosque, and caravanserai on the old course to Europe

5. Çatalca — one of the most provincial pieces of the region, and a decent base to investigate the noteworthy locales lost in the northwestern woodlands from

6. Kilyos — a town on the Black Sea north of European side of Istanbul with simple access to the city; its sandy seashores are a most loved escape from the city in mid-year

7. Polonezköy — a town in the patio of Istanbul established by Polish pioneers in the nineteenth century, with lovely customary houses and excellent timberlands

8. Rumelifeneri — a lovely town on the tip of the western promontory, at the northern passage of Bosphorus, with a fortification and fish cafés

9. Şile — a town on Black Sea coast upper east of Istanbul; a most loved area for swimming in ends of the week



10. Princes’ Islands — 9 vehicle-free islands off the southern shoreline of Istanbul; pine backwoods and amazing chateaus are the principle highlights. The island of Büyükada has the most sights and comforts.

Geography of Istanbul

Istanbul is in north-western Turkey inside the Marmara Region on an all-out region of 5,343 square kilometers (2,063 sq mi). The Bosphorus, which associates the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea, partitions the city into a European, Thracian side—including the memorable and financial focuses—and an Asian, Anatolian side. The city is additionally partitioned by the Golden Horn, a characteristic harbor bouncing the landmass where the previous Byzantium and Constantinople were established. The juncture of the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn at the core of present-day Istanbul has dissuaded assaulting powers for a great many years and stays a conspicuous component of the city’s landscape.

Following the model of Rome, the notable landmass is said to be portrayed by seven slopes, each beat by magnificent mosques. The easternmost of these slopes is the site of Topkapı Palace on the Sarayburnu. Rising from the contrary side of the Golden Horn is another, tapered slope, where the advanced Beyoğlu area is. As a result of the geography, structures in Beyoğlu were once developed with the assistance of terraced holding dividers, and streets were spread out as steps. Üsküdar on the Asian side shows correspondingly bumpy attributes, with the territory bit by bit stretching out down to the Bosphorus coast, yet the scene in Şemsipaşa and Ayazma is increasingly sudden, much the same as a projection.

The most elevated point in Istanbul is Çamlıca Hill, with a height of 288 meters (945 ft). The northern portion of Istanbul has a higher mean rise contrasted with the south coast, with areas outperforming 200 meters (660 ft), and a few coasts with soak bluffs taking after fjords, particularly around the northern finish of the Bosphorus, where it opens up to the Black Sea.



To Understand

Istanbul Province fundamentally reaches out more than two promontories encompassed by the Black Sea, Bosphorus, and the Sea of Marmara—Çatalca toward the west of Bosphorus on European territory and Kocaeli toward the east of Bosphorus on Asian terrain.

Since 2005, Istanbul Province has been coterminous with the city of Istanbul, as the city fringes were reached out to incorporate everything inside commonplace outskirts, however whatever official assignments state, other than the colossal metropolitan region—in a triangular shape, which has its base on the Marmara coast, concealing a territory to 25-30 km long from the southern mouth of Bosphorus at each side, with the stature of the triangle going right to the Black Sea along the Bosphorus—the remainder of the area is rustic, or possibly rural, in character.

On Çatalca Peninsula, topographically an expansion of Thrace, a persistent conurbation shaped by summer places of Istanbulites—solid bungalows in as a rule thickly stuffed, yet to some degree verdant, lodging homes, which individuals of the jam-packed city escape in each conceivable chance, which makes thruways west of city vested on Sunday nighttimes in mid-year—lines the southwestern drifts along Marmara. Inland is for the most part open farmlands creating a lot of wheat and sunflower, and spotted by towns, even though scenes get increasingly mechanical as you draw nearer to the significant interstates or the edges of Istanbul.

The vegetation gets lusher as you approach the Black Sea coast, albeit a portion of the woodlands near the shore is pierced by terrible open pit-mines. Another element along Çatalca’s Black Sea coast is very enormous Lake (Terkos Gölü, a.k.a. Durusu Gölü), a freshwater lake albeit isolated from the salty Black Sea just by a progression of rises and one of the significant wellsprings of drinking water of Istanbul.



On the Marmara bank of the Kocaeli Peninsula, the city of Istanbul appropriately well stretches out to (and past) the common fringe. Inland of this landmass is more verdant than Çatalca, with a portion of the slopes (around Alemdağ) secured by heathlands, an uncommon living space that is discovered distinctly in a bunch of areas around the globe. The Black Sea shore of this half of the territory is additionally lush, yet again simply like its partner to west, is sliced through by open-pit mines in a few areas.

On the two landmasses, the southern coasts are compliment and it gets hillier as you go north, which is a piece of the mountain chain that lines up and down the southern edge of the Black Sea but partitioned by the profound “valley” of the Bosphorus—there is, in reality, a hypothesis that theorizes the Bosphorus was a stream in ancient times, discharging into the Black Sea which was then a very huge freshwater lake yet at the same time littler than its momentum size, that was later overflowed by the rising waters of the Mediterranean toward the finish of chilly age, transforming the riverbed into the waterway that it is. The hypothesis continues contending this may offer to ascend to the legends of incredible flood and Noah’s Ark.

Topography

A high convergence of separation points in northwestern Turkey, where the Eurasian and African plates meet; a couple of deficiencies and edge additionally show up under the Mediterranean. Blames in western Turkey are thought only southwest of Istanbul, going under the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea. Satellite picture demonstrating a slim real estate parcel, thickly populated on the south, cut up by a conduit.

Get In

Essentially among all alternatives of getting into the region, you should contact down Istanbul first somehow, even though it is commonly conceivable to get off the transports heading for Istanbul from areas in Eastern Thrace in Silivri, around 60 km west of Istanbul. The parkway D100 which intently follows the bank of Marmara on the two sides of Bosphorus, and the motorway/cost street O-3/E80 which lies in corresponding with D100 a couple of km inland to north, are the primary spines of the traffic in the area (and are the fundamental streets associating it with neighboring districts), transforming into intensely blocked urban streets, particularly on account of D100, when crossing the city of Istanbul appropriate.



D020 and D010 (which is a continuation of D020 through Belgrad Forest), lie further north of O-3/E80, for the most part navigating lush provincial territories of northern pieces of the area, on the two sides. A couple of day by day prepares from Sirkeci Station associate various remote inland towns notwithstanding the town of Çatalca to Istanbul. Other than the line in the city of Istanbul, which lies along the Marmara coast, there is no Railtrack on Kocaeli’s side, so your choice of getting around via train there is constrained to rural trains employing between Haydarpaşa Station and Gebze out of common outskirts.

Peripheral towns have genuinely visit transport/minibus associations with Istanbul. The transports to towns in western pieces of the region leave from Yenibosna metro station, one of the westernmost stations on the M1 line. Towns along the northern coast are served by transports and minibusses from Sarıyer, the northernmost neighborhood of the city on Bosphorus, while the transports to towns and towns on an eastern promontory, as a rule, have their terminals in Harem, the primary bus stop on Asian Side.

Get Around

Because of the topography of the area lying elongated on promontories, significant courses follow a west-east pivot.

To See

Your prime motivation to be here is to encounter Istanbul. At the point when you’ve done as much as you can adapt to there, or need a break from the city, set aside some effort to investigate the encompassing territory.

Language

While the official standard of Turkish depends on Istanbul lingo, five many years of substantial migration from all over Turkey implies that pretty much any vernacular or language spoken in the nation can be heard in Istanbul, in which conveying in a considerable lot of significant world dialects is no issue, particularly in the travel industry-related organizations. In the western compasses of the region, around Silivri, Çatalca, and the encompassing open country, Thracian vernacular wins among locals, even though that is not an obstruction to correspondence for voyagers communicating in Turkish, as that lingo is genuinely near-standard Turkish.



Neighborhoods of Istanbul

  • Adalar
  • Arnavutköy
  • Ataşehir
  • Avcılar
  • Bağcılar
  • Bahçelievler
  • Bakırköy
  • Başakşehir
  • Bayrampaşa
  • Beşiktaş
  • Beykoz
  • Beylikdüzü
  • Beyoğlu
  • Büyükçekmece
  • Çatalca
  • Çekmeköy
  • Esenler
  • Esenyurt
  • Eyüp
  • Fatih
  • Gaziosmanpaşa
  • Güngören
  • Kadıköy
  • Kağıthane
  • Kartal
  • Küçükçekmece
  • Maltepe
  • Pendik
  • Sancaktepe
  • Sarıyer
  • Silivri
  • Sultanbeyli
  • Sultangazi
  • Şile
  • Şişli
  • Tuzla
  • Ümraniye
  • Üsküdar
  • Zeytinburnu