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Istanbul or Cappadocia: City Versus Nature



Let’s say you are planning a trip to Turkey. What if you have time for just one place? Then, you are about to give a tough decision: whether you should visit Istanbul or Cappadocia? It is worth seeing these two destinations in Turkey since they all offer a lot, but it can be quite hard when you have to decide between them.



While Istanbul is a major metropolis with more than 20 million inhabitants, one of the world’s largest cities, Cappadocia is a series of rock-cut small towns in one of the world’s most geologically interesting places. They are like two different worlds, but with only an hour and a half of flight. So if you are trying to choose between Istanbul and Cappadocia and you can’t do both, here’s our guide on how to choose between Istanbul and Cappadocia.

Advantages of Visiting Istanbul Over Cappadocia


Known by many names such as “Magnificent City”, “City of Emperors” and “Roman Capital” throughout its magnificent history, Istanbul is one of the most important touristic centers of Europe. Istanbul is a perfect university city with its diverse population, colorful arts community, and wide public transportation network. Turkey is a country that has a nation renowned for its hospitality and the people of Istanbul embracing you will make you feel comfortable at home.

Istanbul, which takes its roots from the depths of history, today appears as a brand new, modern, and dynamic city. Alongside the ancient minarets and Byzantine walls, glittering shopping malls, skyscrapers, and residences stretch; The narrow cobblestone streets are adorned with bars and nightclubs that play the latest music and showcase the latest trends. With a population of over 13.8 million, spread over two continents, change never ends in this city.



Istanbul is also a financial and industrial city that produces 25% of the gross national product and plays an important role in both regional trade and cross-border relations. Turkey’s import and export gateway of the city realizes 43% of imports and 50% of the country’s total exports. Being the 34th largest economy in the world, Istanbul has also proven to be a real “business city” by hosting the 35 richest people in the world.

Istanbul is undoubtedly one of the most important cities in the world. It is possible to find Anatolia in Istanbul, as well as Europe. Of course, in this case, the fact that Istanbul consists of two continents is also effective, but it has a structure consisting of a combination of every culture in real terms. It is possible to discover all the cultural differences in Istanbul with your trip. One of the most important situations to come to Istanbul is its historical beauties. Since Istanbul is home to many long-established states, it has various historical areas.

Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia, and Blue Mosque, Galata Tower, and Maiden’s Tower, which are among the Ottoman palaces, are must-see places. Istanbul is a city that smells of history. It is possible to find a historical area everywhere. There is no other city anywhere else in the world that joins two different continents. Istanbul’s combination of this reminds many people to reunite two lovers. It is possible to travel between continents with bridges in Istanbul. It hosts a very interesting image. It is possible to discover its original beauty on both sides.



There are many seaside districts in Istanbul. It is a country that attracts everyone’s attention with its sea. It is also possible to take an intercontinental tour in the sea of ​​Istanbul. By taking a Bosphorus tour, it is possible to pass under bridges and to pass in front of various historical palaces. It is possible to see the palaces, mansions and historical schools designed in a beautiful way, with a Bosphorus tour. Undoubtedly, baths, which still keep the Ottoman culture alive, are one of the main situations that attract the attention of local and foreign tourists. In addition to the cleansing culture, massage culture is also observed in the baths.

What Makes Istanbul Unique Compared to Cappadocia


It is also possible to experience a pleasant Turkish bath in Istanbul. This pleasure can be reached by visiting various baths built by Haseki Sultans. Another possibility is the bazaars. The Spice Bazaar and the Grand Bazaar are ideal places to find products suitable for Istanbul culture. It is possible to find products in every field such as food, beverage, clothing, and jewelry. The fact that Istanbul consists of two continents has led to the discovery of various activities here. At certain times of the year, intercontinental swimming and bridge running competitions are held. It will be very enjoyable to coincide with these races. People do both fun and sports together. It is a big reason to come to Istanbul. Because this pleasure is not experienced anywhere else in the world.

It is possible to find the proverbial kitchen in every corner of Turkey in Istanbul. People who want to discover delicious and different flavors can taste these cuisines. The kitchen is a big reason to come to Istanbul. There are many delicious foods such as Turkish coffee, Turkish breakfast, baklavas, kebabs, doner kebabs, home cooking, lahmacun, Turkish yogurt, ravioli that every tourist will love. Istanbul is a city that never gets tired. It can have an energetic environment every night. Places such as Taksim, Beyoğlu, Asmalımescit, Karaköy are very energetic at night. It is one of the must-visit places for interested parties.



There are many shopping centers in Istanbul. In these shopping centers, it is possible to shop as well as to eat. In addition, various activities are held in these shopping centers. There are many artistic activities and shows in these shopping centers. People who are interested in art, shopping, and new designs can visit shopping malls in both Europe and Asia for a short discovery.

Istanbul is Turkey’s cultural treasures, a place where you can discover the traces of different cultures and civilizations at every step. While the traces of Ottoman, Byzantine, and Rome welcome visitors in the Historic Peninsula, the most important museums of our country are also located in Istanbul. Symbol structures such as Hagia Sophia Museum, Blue Mosque, Basilica Cistern, Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum, Galata Tower, and Maiden’s Tower reflect the memory of the city. Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Istanbul Airport and an important part of our country, airline passenger traffic alone meets with Turkey’s Istanbul Airport have direct flights from around the globe.

Due to the high number of flights throughout the year and the flights of alternative airlines, it is easier to find a suitable flight ticket for Istanbul. You can easily plan your Istanbul trip with a one-way flight ticket in the range of $ 50-100 and take the first step to discover this magical city. When asked nightlife of Istanbul in Turkey, one of the first places that come to mind. Especially in İstiklal Caddesi, Şişli, Nişantaşı, and Kadıköy regions, there are popular nightclubs, bars, and entertainment venues in Istanbul. In entertainment venues where life continues for 24 hours, you can keep up with the dynamic tempo of Istanbul and experience different venues until morning.



It is possible to find something suitable for every budget and every taste in Istanbul, which lives 24 hours a day. The food culture that makes Istanbul an attractive city for foreign visitors is also reflected in street flavors. From kokoreç to wet hamburger, from doner to cold cuts, from mussels to hamburgers, you can fill your stomach with pleasure at any time. In Istanbul, which has dozens of alternatives for families with children, there are great fun places to go with children, from Vialand to Miniatürk, from Toy Museum to Aquarium. There are many options Istanbul offers to spend full time with your child.

What Can You Do in Istanbul That You Cannot Do in Cappadocia?


  • Panoramic Istanbul View: Galata Tower

Climbing up the Galata Tower, one of Istanbul’s popular historical and touristic attractions, and watching a magnificent panoramic city view is one of the must-do things in this fascinating city. Built in the 1300s, the tower overlooks Sultanahmet and the Bosphorus. When you get to the top of the tower, you can easily choose many important buildings in the city. When you come to Galata Tower, you can have dinner in the restaurant section that opens at 20:00 in the evening.

  • Witness the Living Space of the Sultans: Topkapı Palace

Topkapı Palace, one of the fascinating palaces of Istanbul, which is also famous for its palaces, is located next to Gulhane Park in Fatih district. Gülhane Park used to serve as the outer garden of Topkapı Palace and the park was opened to the public during the Republic period. Topkapı Palace, a work of the 15th century, was the place where sultans and their families lived during the Ottoman period. You can visit the palace, built by Mimar Sinan, Sarkis Balyan, Davut Ağa, and Acem Ali, between 09:00 and 17:00, except Tuesdays. Topkapı Palace is also known for its collection of historical artifacts, which include knowledge of important religions and are claimed to belong to some prophets. While visiting Topkapi Palace, you have to pay an additional fee to visit the harem section. In this chapter; The sultan’s private rooms, family and concubines are living spaces.



  • From the Byzantine Period to the Present: Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia, whose history goes back to the 6th century, was built as a church in the Byzantine period. The building, which was converted into a mosque after the conquest of Istanbul, is today one of the most popular museums in the city. Visiting Hagia Sophia, which has a long and deep-rooted history, is one of the most popular things to do in Istanbul. You should definitely see the magnificent view of the Sultanahmet Mosque from its flamboyant exterior, its enchanting interior, the Christian mosaics on its walls, and the windows on the second floor.

  • One of the Most Beautiful Views of Istanbul: Maiden’s Tower

Located in Salacak district of Üsküdar, the Maiden’s Tower is a tower built in the early 12th century and has been the subject of many legends. Located in the middle of the Bosphorus, this small Byzantine tower is a place you can visit today to witness one of the most beautiful views of Istanbul. You can also dine in the restaurant and cafe section on the second floor of the tower.

  • Visit Magnificent Architectural Buildings: Dolmabahçe Palace

There are many palaces that you can see on your Istanbul trip. Dolmabahçe Palace is one of these palaces. Located in the Kabataş district of Beşiktaş district, the palace was built in the 19th century. Dolmabahçe Palace, located on the opposite shore of the Salacak district of Üsküdar; It is a fine example of Ottoman, Neoclassical, and Baroque architecture. Built by Garabet Amira Balyan and Evanis Kalfa, the palace is famous for its starry interior. Especially the ceiling filled with gold and crystal is worth seeing.



  • The Shopping Crowd: İstiklal Street

İstiklal Street is one of the most central places in Istanbul. Istiklal Caddesi, one of the most popular destinations for local and foreign tourists, is crowded at all hours of the day but has a quieter atmosphere in the early hours of the day. When you come to Istiklal Street, where many local and foreign clothing stores, accessories, shoes, jewelry, bags, and many other shops and shops are located, you can enjoy a pleasant shopping experience after a small discovery tour.

  • With Golden Mosaic Frames: Kariye Museum

This 1000-year-old building was formerly a part of a monastery outside the city walls of Istanbul, and today is a beautiful museum that reflects Byzantine architect. Kariye Museum, which is an old Greek Orthodox Church, is located in the Edirnekapı district in Karagümrük district. The most striking part of the Kariye Museum is its ceiling. Its gold-framed mosaics cover the entire ceiling and are one of the must-see sections in the museum.

  • Indistinguishable Fragrances: Spice Bazaar

Another important market in Istanbul is the Spice Bazaar. It is impossible not to come here and not love. Home to beautiful, colorful, and magnificent scents, the Spice Bazaar is the ideal place to find an edible gift for your loved ones on your Istanbul trip. After exploring its beautiful interior, you can also explore the exterior on the west side. In this section, you can reach many different flavors such as olives, local cheeses, vegetables, and Turkish coffee.



  • Explore the Past History Step by Step: The Archaeological Museum

Archeology museums of Istanbul are located in the area used as the outer garden of Topkapı Palace. Therefore, it is very close to many must-see places in Istanbul. The long and storied history of this fascinating city and the reign of the world’s great empires make these museums an important treasure, especially for history buffs. The Old East Museum, the Archeology Museum, and the Museum of Islamic Art are side by side and contain numerous objects related to both world culture and history.

Advantages of Visiting Cappadocia Over Istanbul


Cappadocia, which has hosted countless civilizations for millions of years, has survived to this day and has been home to legendary fairy chimneys, has a perfect location in the very center of Anatolia in Nevşehir. It is not even sincere not to admire the extinguished volcanic lava in this place where historical formations turn into a pleasure. Cappadocia needs among Turkey’s most valuable natural beauty with unparalleled geological structure as well as a mysterious story.

Cappadocia, the name of the world that turns fire and water into a legend, where lava creates a miracle, was formed by the formation of a soft layer on the surface of the lava that erupted from Erciyes Mountain, Hasan Mountain, and Güllü Mountain 60 million ago and this layer was formed by the erosion of rain and wind over time. Cappadocia, which is a fairy tale world that amazes everyone today, has turned into a true legend with its historical ruins, beauties, and stories offered by nature. If you say why should I go to Cappadocia with the values ​​it preserves behind its calm, clear, and fragile appearance, here is the answer.



Exactly 60 million years ago, with the rise of the Taurus Mountains and the compression of the Anatolian Plateau in the north, Erciyes, Hasandağı, and Göllüdağ, which was between the two, spewed lava into the region and the ashes formed a soft tuff layer. Cones formed from hard basalt rock that emerged from the erosion of rain and wind for millions of years, created natural formations that we call ‘Fairy Chimneys’ today. Awe-inspiring cultural values ​​emerge from every hidden corner of Cappadocia, which has millions of years of historical and cultural accumulation under the influence of the Hittites, Ancient Greeks, Byzantium, Seljuks, and the Ottoman Empire. Surrounded by Christian and Muslim inscriptions, churches, and mosques, there are centuries-old cultural accumulations in every corner of Cappadocia.

There are cultural riches in the invisible part of Cappadocia as well as the visible part. Underground cities of 150-200 are spread over an area of ​​25,000 km². Most of the underground cities were formed by the deep carving of soft volcanic tuffs. The techniques used for the cities built underground are still unknown. Underground cities in the region such as Derinkuyu, Özkonak, and Kaymaklı attract the attention of visitors.



There are many ways to enjoy the breathtaking surreal scenery of Cappadocia. One of them is to watch the region from a bird’s eye view. It is necessary to enjoy watching the skyline of Cappadocia, which comes to mind when it comes to balloon tours. The balloon tour, which starts with the sunrise, offers an unforgettable experience. Many boutique hotels in the Cappadocia Region were built on the originally carved cliffs. You embark on a journey through time in the fairy-tale ambiance of the hotels, which decorate the interiors of old neighborhoods and houses without spoiling the original.

What Makes Cappadocia Unique Compared to Istanbul


The pleasure of Cappadocia’s calm and unhurried life becomes even more attractive in the terraces and pools overlooking the beauty of Cappadocia. The mystical atmosphere of the boutique hotels in Cappadocia is also worth seeing. The massage rooms, pool, and jacuzzis built in historical carved rock rooms, while relaxing your body and soul, also impress with its historical ambiance. In the 3rd century, the priests made the region a lively center of religious thought and life, and in the 4th century, Cappadocia began to be known as the hometown of three great saints.

Among these three saints, Basil, the Bishop of Kayseri, did not prefer a pious life and established small settlements away from villages and towns, which can be called spiritual shelters of the societies. It marks the region where the education system focused on spirituality, which is open to visitors today as Göreme Open Air Museum, was initiated. Tokalı Church, Monastery of Nuns and Priests, St. Basil’s Chapel, Elmalı Church, St. Barbara Chapel, and Yılanlı (St. Onuphrius) Church are at the top of the list of must-see places.



Caftans, handcrafted rugs, and earthenware jugs adorned with local traces are some of Cappadocia’s cultural treasures. Custom made jugs and rugs that you can only find in Cappadocia attract the attention of foreign tourists, especially. The concerts held on the carved rocks, which are described as a natural miracle and have wonderful acoustics, also reveal the artistic side of Cappadocia. Turkish nights are organized in Cappadocia, which hosts guests from all over the world, telling the history and culture of the region.

You will find the best examples of Turkish cuisine, which is curious among the world cuisines, in Cappadocia. Many flavors are waiting for you, from Çelti kebab to jug kebab, from pumpkin seeds to locally grown vineyards. Region-specific wine varieties can be considered as the reward of Cappadocia travel. You will see the breathtaking Taurus Mountains with its silhouette, experience an adventure on the earth track, and see Cappadocia’s fascinating fairy chimneys, cave houses, and rock churches. Sometimes you will be trekking through difficult paths and sometimes you can discover landscapes that no one has noticed yet.

What Can You Do in Cappadocia That You Cannot Do in Istanbul?


  • Getting Lost in History

With the glory and tunnels of Kadı Castle in Ürgüp, while carrying the traces of the Christian community that used to live here and hid their religion freely, people are almost fascinated by the history of buildings such as Taşkın Pasha Mosque, St. Theodore Church, and Pink Valley. It is incredibly enjoyable to get lost in history for hours at the Ürgüp Museum, which opens the veils of mystery by giving a lot of information about the past. In Zelve Valley, you can witness the different formations of fairy chimneys and giant hats, especially you can see the Three Beauties closely, you can see the remains of the oldest lives in Çavuşin Village, and even touch them. You can meet the Uçhisar Castle from the ancient times of Rome, and you can listen to what has happened since Roman times. If you have time, do not miss the opportunity to see the legendary Ihlara Valley, which is half an hour away from Nevşehir.



  • Balloon Rides and Many More Adventure-filled Activities

When Cappadocia is mentioned, the first thing that comes to mind is to reach the sky with a balloon and watch the fairy chimneys with a bird’s eye view. Although the most entertaining activity in Cappadocia is known as the balloon tour, it is worth reminding you that you actually have many more options. If you are good with horses, you can join safari tours on horseback, explore Cappadocia with the unmatched friendship the horses offer to you, visit the abundant pottery making sites in Avanos to witness the journey of the pottery from the first production stage to the tables, you can have an extraordinary experience by making your own pots. the actual cross golf game for the first time in Cappadocia in Turkey can participate between April and October.

These games, which are performed for the first time in Cappadocia, offer you different experiences in the game of golf. While getting lost in Goreme’s valleys, you can breathe in the heart of nature with long walks. In addition to walks, you can get lost in the valley roads with ATV tours in the valleys and bring a new breath to your discoveries. ATV tours, which are accompanied by a guide and attract a lot of attention, can be done by one or two people or as a group. You can have moments of both joy and adventure with your group of friends for a few hours. In addition, if you are interested in marbling art, you can have the opportunity to make marbling with your own hands for your loved ones at the Ebru Art Center in Göreme and see various kinds of marbling works of beauty.

  • Staying in Hand-Carved Stone Houses

Unlike normal holiday resorts, Cappadocia offers you a unique accommodation experience. Forget all-inclusive hotels, resorts, holiday camps, five-star, ten-star hotels. Get ready for an experience you’ve never experienced before! These structures, which are presented by the structure and geological characteristics of the region, were built by the people who lived here in ancient times and have survived to the present day.



It is an indisputable fact that you will have a very different experience with the atmosphere that surrounds you as soon as you enter these houses built in fairy chimneys and under the ground. You can crown your Cappadocia holiday in the most beautiful way by staying in these cave hotels built into the rocks one by one. Cappadocia cave hotels gain the appreciation of the guests by adding unique decorations as well as unique architectural features.

  • Wine Tasting

Winemaking becomes inevitable in this heavenly place where the vineyards are wrapped all over. It is possible to see the wine tasting houses that host countless wine varieties everywhere you go. The wines, which are seen as a blessing that the vineyards offer to Cappadocia, fascinate the tasters. Kocabağ Wine House in Uçhisar continues to maintain the reputation of Cappadocia wines with its long-standing story and Turasan Wine House in Ürgüp with its wide variety of wines. Usually held in September each year, the Grape Harvest Festival Urgup sees a lot of attention from tourists from all over Turkey.

  • Exploring Mysterious Underground Cities

Cappadocia, which is an unprecedented place on earth with its vast valleys, fairy chimneys that catch the eye with its unique formations, and natural beauties, is also very famous for its underground cities. Each of the Cappadocia underground cities, which have survived from the times when Anatolia hosted many civilizations, almost carry traces of the past. Each of the mysterious underground cities is worth seeing. You can start your Cappadocia tour with Kaymaklı and Derinkuyu underground cities, which have managed to reach today with the possibilities of the past.



  • Tasting Different Flavors

Cappadocia, where you will embrace the Anatolian lands, has many food cultures, especially due to its location. It is possible to find a different alternative for every taste in this place where local dishes turn into a feast. Especially “Testi Kebabı” is incredibly famous in Cappadocia, where food culture is identified with the city. These local delicacies, with dried legumes and red meat, are cooked in pots that are very common in the region. The bean dish made in a pot is very popular.

In particular, we recommend you to taste the rice pudding cooked in a pot. Pottery made in the region also shows itself in the food culture and creates the flavors unique to Cappadocia. The local flavors of Ürgüp, Avanos, and Uçhisar and the fact that each flavor has a separate story makes Cappadocia a place to explore even more. You have the chance to try these delicious flavors in restaurants and small restaurants that you can come across almost in Cappadocia.

Best Cappadocia Balloon Puzzles That You Can Buy Online












A Vacation in Istanbul: Here is What You Need to Know



Istanbul is one of the leading cities in the world in terms of historical and natural wealth. It has created a unique order in chaos with its increasing population day by day and the urban texture that has become chaotic accordingly. Generally, touristic spots are gathered in the region called “Historical Peninsula”. Although it has been discussed to close this area to traffic in the past, no decision has been taken in this direction. You can see the good and the bad, the beautiful and the ugly, the old and the new side by side in almost every point of this city where the West and the East meet. If you dream about a vacation in Istanbul, keep reading this guide.



The most famous buildings in the city, which are among the places to visit in Istanbul, are all within walking distance. The region called the Historical Peninsula forms the borders of Byzantine Istanbul. Fatih entered the city on horseback with a great welcoming ceremony and visited Hagia Sophia. After that, Hagia Sophia was the first visit point in the city as a tradition. The rest of our list of places to visit includes the most important sightseeing spots such as Galata Tower, Istanbul Archeology Museum, Sultan Ahmet Mosque, Süleymaniye Mosque, palaces such as Topkapı Palace, Dolmabahçe Palace, parks such as Gülhane Park, Emirgan Park, squares and museums. You can find detailed information about these places and more in the rest of the article.

A Vacation in Istanbul: Transportation


In Istanbul, intracity road and sea transportation are coordinated by IETT. In addition, the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality’s Bus Corporation and minibusses play an active role in transportation. The rail system in Istanbul is coordinated by Istanbul Transportation Inc. within the body of IMM. Municipal buses, Metrobus under the IETT and metro, tram, and Marmaray services under Istanbul Transport. At the same time, transportation between some regions on the European and Asian sides and between the Islands is carried out by ferry services under IETT.

Urban transportation in the city started in 1869 with the establishment of the Dersaadet Tramway Company and the construction of the Tunnel Facilities. After being operated by foreigners for a while, this company gained a new structuring with the law numbered 3645 in 1939 under the name of Istanbul Electric Tram and Tunnel (IETT). There is one airport on both sides of Istanbul. Atatürk Airport serves on the European side and Sabiha Gökçen Airport on the Anatolian side. In addition, the work of the third airport in the city continues. You can reach the city from the airports by HAVABUS and the metro. To reach Atatürk Airport, you can use the Yenikapı – Airport metro line, as well as easily reach by taxi and private airline vehicles.



You can reach the Yenikapı-Airport metro by transferring from the Anatolian side by Marmaray and from the European side by Metrobus, tramway, and other metro lines. Transportation routes to Sabiha Gökçen Airport are more limited. HAVABUS departing from Kadıköy and Taksim, airport buses, and taxis are the options used for transportation. Apart from these, works are continuing to extend the Kadıköy – Tavşantepe Metro Line and to construct it up to Sabiha Gökçen. Sabiha Gökçen International Airport is 14 km away from Pendik Train Station and you can reach the airport from here by taxi.

There are extensive public and private transportation opportunities in Istanbul. There are bus and metro lines, trams, ferries, and minibus options. You will need to use a token each time you board a tram, subway, or ferry covered by the public transport system. You can buy tokens from the toll booths or machines at bus, subway, or train stations. If you are going to stay in Istanbul longer than a few days, it is a good idea to have an Istanbulkart. This card can be used on public transport and gives you the option to transfer between public transport or lines for free or at a discount. Istanbulkart can be bought and refilled from all major buses, tram, or metro stations as well as some newspapers near these stations.

There are two types of public buses, the public buses operated by the private sector operating in Istanbul and the public buses operated by IETT, and you can distinguish these buses by their colors. While blue-green buses with yellow non-electronic route signs are private-public buses, buses operated by IETT appear in a wide variety of colors like red and blue buses, as well as newer green buses and double-decker buses. Metrobus is a long hybrid bus that operates on its own lane separated from all other traffic and thus saves a lot of travel time.



Sea transportation is widely used in Istanbul. With sea transportation, you can avoid traffic and witness the breathtaking beauty of the Bosphorus. Ferryboats connect the two sides of the city by sailing from several piers; In addition to these trips, there are also trips to the Islands. In addition to ferries, there are also Istanbul City Lines, sea bus (IDO), and special engine options.

A tram line (T1 line) connects Kabataş to Zeytinburnu, where you can transfer to the metro line to get to Atatürk Airport. This line has 24 stations and serves popular tourist spots like Sultanahmet and Eminönü. There are two trams operating on a separate line; Line 38 runs along the entire T1 line between Kabataş and Zeytinburnu. Line number 47 runs between Eminönü and Cevizlibağ stations. Both trams stop at stations in the Old City. In addition, there are two more tram lines connecting residential and industrial areas to the city center in the northwest: T2 line reaches Bağcılar district and the T4 line reaches Sultançiftliği district and connects to Zeytinburnu and Topkapı stations on the T1 line.

The Istanbul metro consists of two lines: the north line connects Yenikapı to Hacıosman via Mecidiyeköy and Levent. In addition, there is a funicular system that connects Taksim to Kabataş, where you can get on the ferry to get to the Anatolian side and also transfer to the tram to the old city. Another funicular system, “the Tunnel”, operates between Karaköy and İstiklal Caddesi. The tunnel is Istanbul’s first underground system and has been used since 1875. A separate south Metro line connects Aksaray to Atatürk Airport via Esenler Bus Terminal, which is the main bus terminal. On the Asian side, the M4 metro line is now operational and connects Kadıköy to Tavşanca.

A Vacation in Istanbul: Accomodation


Considered among the world’s most beautiful cities, Istanbul is also in the first place among the most popular tourist areas of Turkey. When it comes to places to visit in Istanbul or things to see in Istanbul, there are many attractive opportunities from cultural and entertainment opportunities to historical and architectural beauties, from shopping to eating and drinking, from nightlife to nature. In order to visit Istanbul, which is home to so many must-see things and is a very large city in terms of surface measurements, you should definitely make your accommodation area choice in Istanbul in the most pleasant and comfortable way.

After finding an answer to the question of where to stay in Istanbul, your business will be easier with Istanbul hotels because there are many hotel options in Istanbul that appeal to every budget and taste. “Where to stay in Istanbul?”, “Which are the ideal accommodation areas to visit Istanbul in the easiest and most comfortable way?” If you are confused by such questions, the Istanbul accommodation areas I have listed below will help you determine which region you should choose for hotel selection in Istanbul.



  • Besiktas

Beşiktaş is one of the most central and vibrant districts of Istanbul. Whether you are traveling to Istanbul for business or a touristic plan, you can choose among Beşiktaş hotels for accommodation and visit Istanbul in the most enjoyable way. If we briefly talk about the features of the Beşiktaş region, it is possible to find everything you are looking for here. There are many alternatives especially for shopping, eating and drinking, and nightlife in Beşiktaş Çarşı. Even considering details such as “Where to eat in Istanbul?” Or “Istanbul nightlife”, we can say that many special places are in Beşiktaş.

  • Ortakoy

Ortaköy is one of the most preferred regions for accommodation in Istanbul. It is definitely ideal for the answer to the question of where to stay in Istanbul, both when it comes to transportation to places to visit in Istanbul and when considering the alternatives around the hotel. If you want to be close to the most active places in Istanbul and not to be in that mess, you can book a hotel in Ortaköy.

  • Taksim

Let’s continue with Taksim, one of the most popular areas of Istanbul. Although the historical texture and atmosphere of the past do not remain today, Taksim is still the most touristic area that comes to mind when Istanbul is mentioned. Taksim, which contains culture, entertainment, shopping, eating and drinking, and many other alternatives, which can be called the most active area of ​​Istanbul day and night, is one of the places that can be preferred for accommodation in Istanbul.

  • Karakoy

Karaköy is one of my personal favorite areas in Istanbul. From shopping to eating and drinking, from museums to entertainment venues; It is a region where you can find everything you are looking for and be away from the complex of Istanbul. Especially with the changes it has gone through in recent years, it started to host many new places, both modern and traditional.



  • Eminönü and Sirkeci

Another alternative that I can recommend for those wondering where to stay in Istanbul is Eminönü and Sirkeci, which are among the most valuable districts of Istanbul. Eminönü and Sirkeci, located in the region called the Historical Peninsula, are ideal for those who love busy and dynamic areas. You can discover the spirit of Istanbul by staying in Eminönü and Sirkeci with its historical bazaars, pleasant streets, architectural textures, food, and beverage alternatives.

  • Sultanahmet

Sultanahmet is one of the most preferred regions for accommodation in Istanbul by tourists and travelers. If you want to stay in a historical area and be as close as possible to historical buildings in Istanbul, you should take a look at the Sultanahmet hotels. Sultanahmet is the most important and popular tourist area of Istanbul with its historical buildings, architectural wonders, museums, and different opportunities from shopping to eating and drinking within its borders.

  • Kadikoy

Kadıköy, the most central region of the Asian side with its shopping, eating and drinking, nightlife, culture, and entertainment opportunities, is one of the ideal recommendations we can give for the question of where to stay in Istanbul. If you want to discover the young and energetic side of Istanbul, you can look at accommodation alternatives in Kadıköy. There are many more original and innovative options in Kadıköy, instead of the classic shops, restaurants, cafes, etc. that you can find in almost every district of Istanbul.

  • Uskudar

Üsküdar, located on the opposite side of Beşiktaş, is one of the most ideal districts in terms of transportation on the Anatolian Side, considering the touristic places and the most popular places in Istanbul. If you are to ask “Where to stay in Üsküdar?”, I can say that Üsküdar Iskele surroundings (Üsküdar Sahil), Beylerbeyi and Kuzguncuk.

A Vacation in Istanbul: Activities


Visitors to Istanbul may find it difficult to grasp the size of the city at first glance. Especially foreign visitors are amazed by the abundance of options while preparing a list of activities to be done in Istanbul. There is a 24-hour life in this mega-city with a population of over 15 million. In some parts of the city, the streets are desolate at night, while in other parts the movement continues until morning. In order to fully feel the energy of Istanbul, it is necessary to spend time in Beyoğlu, Beşiktaş, Ortaköy, or Kadıköy districts in the evening. Because Sultanahmet, where historical artifacts are located, is silent after 23:00, except for the month of Ramadan. Here are the activities to be done in Istanbul:

Things to do in Istanbul include lots of walking. As a tourist guide, I recommend you to go to the places you will visit without a car as possible. The best way to get to know a city is to walk. Every street of districts such as Sultanahmet, Fener-Balat, Karaköy-Galata is full of history. If you drive to your activities in Istanbul, you may miss many details to discover.



One of the most beautiful things to do with a lover in Istanbul is to go on a Bosphorus tour. When it comes to traveling the Bosphorus by boat or ferry, we come across two options. One of them is to participate in the 1.5-hour tour with the Turyol boat. Turyol’s Bosphorus tour boats depart from Eminönü and Üsküdar. After continuing to the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, they return. The second option is to go to Anadolu Kavağı by the Private Travel Ferry of the City Lines departing from Eminönü. This activity will last about 6 hours and takes your whole day. However, a 3-hour break at Anadolu Kavağı is enjoyable. You can climb Yoros Castle and eat fish by the sea.

All local and foreign visitors who come to visit Istanbul start from Sultanahmet to explore the city first. Of course, when we consider historical artifacts such as Hagia Sophia, Blue Mosque, and Topkapı Palace, they are not unfair. The most important place of the Historical Peninsula, which was the capital of the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires, is of course Sultanahmet. It offers exquisite Instagram shots to those who want to visit historical monuments in Sultanahmet and take photos in Istanbul.

After a stroll in Sultanahmet, it is customary to go to the Grand Bazaar and crown the day with shopping. With its history dating back to 1461, the Grand Bazaar attracts people like a magnet. Even people who wait in long queues in Sultanahmet’s museums and get tired during the day cannot resist the desire to shop in the Grand Bazaar. The Grand Bazaar, a huge historical monument with 67 streets and more than 3000 shops, is the last representative of the traditional shopping style to date.

Fener and Balat are two districts that have become increasingly popular in recent years. These neighboring districts can be easily visited with a walking tour that will take a few hours. These two districts, which reflect the Ottoman period Istanbul in the best way, are of great historical importance. Fener Balat districts represent the mosaic structure of Istanbul with its mosques, churches, and synagogues located in neighboring streets. These districts, in which non-Muslim Ottoman citizens lived in the past, have a considerable cultural heritage. Walking Fener Balat is one of the top weekend activities in Istanbul.



Both the Anatolian and European coasts of the Bosphorus are very active on weekends. “Breakfast Culture”, which is a very large participant of Istanbul, shows itself all over the city on weekends. Although there are great breakfast facilities in Galata, Cihangir, Sultanahmet, or Kadıköy, which are not adjacent to the Bosphorus, of course, there is no substitute for breakfast on the Bosphorus. On the European side, Ortaköy, Bebek, and Rumeli Hisarı host the best breakfast places. On the other hand, the Anatolian Side is in a sweet competition with the other side, with its distinguished neighborhoods and groves such as Beylerbeyi, Çengelköy, and Anadolu Hisarı.

With the rise of tourism in Istanbul since the early 2000s, dozens of hotels were opened and historical baths were restored. The most beautiful Turkish Bath, which has been restored and brought to tourism in recent years, stands out as the Haseki Hürrem Sultan Bath, which is adjacent to Hagia Sophia. This bathhouse, which is adjacent to Sultanahmet Park, was built by Mimar Sinan in the 16th century. In addition, Çemberlitaş, Cağaloğlu, Süleymaniye, Kılıç Ali Paşa, and Galatasaray Baths are among the historical baths of Istanbul.

In the upper lines, we talked about having breakfast on the Bosphorus in Istanbul. One of the things to do in Istanbul on the weekends is having breakfast in Ortaköy; It must be one of the most enjoyable things to take a walk to Bebek or to Rumeli Fortress. Arnavutköy, which stretches between Ortaköy and Bebek, is the track where activities such as walking and jogging on the Bosphorus will be the most enjoyable. While walking from Ortaköy to Bebek, you can watch the bridges and mansions by breathing the fresh air of the Bosphorus right from the shore of the sea. You can even dive into the sea with fishermen and take great Instagram photos.

A Vacation in Istanbul: Eating and Drinking


  • Pickled water in Petek Turşuları

Just as pickles go well with every meal, it’s always the right time to drink pickle juice. Add a few pieces of your preferred pickle and enjoy this salty drink in the colorful jars around you. Petek Turşuları is in Balıkpazarı.

  • Stuffed meatballs in Sabırtaşı

Another famous street flavor of Beyoğlu is the stuffed meatballs of Sabırtaşı. It’s crispy on the outside and soft inside. We recommend that you buy two so you don’t get back on the road alone because one is never enough.

  • Turkish coffee in Mandabatmaz

The name of Mandabatmaz, located in Olivia Pass in Asmalı Mescit, is enough to describe the consistency of the coffee. Its foam is so thick that even a buffalo doesn’t really sink into it.

  • Turkish coffee at Kronotrop Coffee Bar & Roastery

Kronotrop, a third wave coffee maker, also approaches Turkish coffee with a new perspective. They don’t mix the beans, they make the coffee in copper pots. You should try the coffee of Kronotrop, which has four branches in Istanbul.



  • Kazandibi in Özkonak Muhallebicisi

Serving in Cihangir since 1962, Özkonak is very famous for its desserts, yogurt, and cream. When you enter Özkonak, which does not change its decor, you will be teleported to the past with a time machine.

  • Tadım menu at Mikla

We met the new Anatolian approach for the first time in 2012 at Mikla, thanks to Mehmet Gürs. In Mikla’s kitchen, which respects the traditions and rich flavor culture of Anatolia, the ingredients come from small local producers.

  • Karnıyarık at Şahin Restaurant

With rice and cacik on the side, Şahin Lokantası’s Karniyarik is so delicious that most of the time there is nothing left from the lunch service. But don’t forget to reserve a place for the walnut Kadayif. Şahin Restaurant is in Asmalı Mescit.

  • Nicole – Fine dining

Nicole, who is in Tomtom, cooks Turkish food with French techniques. The list of the restaurant, where you can only have a tasting menu, changes every six weeks according to seasonal ingredients.

  • Appetizers at Asmalı Cavit

Eggplant salad, hatching, fava, sea bass marinated, Lacerda, sea beans, şakşuka … You will have a hard time choosing when the tray comes before you, yes. You should also taste the leaf liver from the hot appetizers.

  • Sausage and kidney bean puree at Yeni Lokanta

As soon as you enter Yeni Lokanta, the noise of Istiklal Street will remain behind you. Do not fill your stomach with sourdough bread and burnt butter on your table. Next, we have raçanga in vine leaves, stuffed zucchini flowers, dried eggplant ravioli, and hummus. However, perhaps the most famous dish of Yeni Lokanta is Antep sausage with walnuts and warm kidney bean puree.

  • Galata Simitcisi

You can find simit around every corner in Istanbul, but few of them are as delicious as in Galata Simitcisi. The fork of this simit seller in Karaköy is also popular.



  • Mürver

At Mürver, which serves different menus at noon and in the evening, meats, seafood, and vegetables are cooked on the flame. Start with the octopus, then continue with the Thracian lamb. Enjoy it with delicious cocktails.

  • Boiled lamb in Nato Lokantası

Peers with Turkey’s NATO membership (1952), this restaurant has been offering quality service for years. Boiled lamb should not be missed. Half portion doner kebab over rice should definitely be tasted. You can also share your table with people you don’t know and have interesting conversations.

  • Neolokal

In Neolokal, located in Salt Galata, the flavors of Anatolia come before you with modern interpretations and exquisite presentations. You may not be able to decide whether your plates are more beautiful or the view of the Golden Horn in front of you.

  • Historical Karakoy Fish Restaurant

The most delicious fish grills of Istanbul are hidden in Hardware Stores Street. The must-try option is perch on paper. It is also recommended to start with shrimp skewers. Note that it is only open in the afternoon.

  • Cankurtaran Gıda

You can find a variety of cheeses, sausages, bacon, honey, and olives in this delicatessen in the Spice Bazaar. Erzincan Tulum cheese is very popular in Cankurtaran Gıda, which has not lost its line since 1964.

  • Meatballs at the famous Filibe Köftecisi

Filibe Köftecisi is very close to Marmaray Sirkeci Station, with its almost coin-sized bite-sized meatballs, blarney, and green peppers cooked on the grill. Founded in 1893, the place has been serving the same taste for more than a century.



  • Sehzade Cag Kebab

In Şehzade, one of the representatives of Erzurum’s delicious cag kebab in Istanbul, lavash, onion, paste, and yogurt will come with your meat. If you can curb yourself, don’t forget to reserve a place for stuffed Kadayif.

  • Pita with roasted meat at Hocapaşa Pidecisi

Serving in Sirkeci since 1964, the humble Hocapaşa Pidecisi’s pitas with minced meat, pastrami, roasting, and cheese are prepared in front of your eyes and cooked in a wood oven. It is especially magnificent with its fried pickles and Ayran.

A Vacation in Istanbul: Best Time to Visit


Istanbul has a structure that attracts tourists in all months of the year. The city offers different beauty in every period. The redbud trees with purple flowers in the spring and the yellowing vegetation in the autumn envelop the city streets and streets with a beauty similar to landscape paintings. Likewise, under the snow-white snow of winter, Istiklal Street has a beauty that is just as good as the Christmas cities of Europe. Some people like this city in winter, some in summer. It would not be right to make such a referral. Honestly, Istanbul is always a different beauty.

Istanbul is a city that welcomes people from all over the world, but when to go to this magical Istanbul? It is possible for every civilization to find something in Istanbul. If you are thinking about when to visit Istanbul, which spreads over 7 continents and offers different tastes in both continents, you should first decide what kind of trip you want to take. Deciding the appropriate time period for you or the events you want to catch in Istanbul will be extremely effective in your decision about the future period.

You can encounter different beauty in every period of Istanbul. Offering different pleasures throughout all four seasons, Istanbul is decorated with tulips with the arrival of spring and tulips are one of the most important symbols of this city. If you are looking for an answer to the question of when to go to Istanbul, this is perhaps the most beautiful period for Istanbul, when the streets are full of tulips. Istanbul draws attention with its yellowing leaves in the autumn period. If you want to witness Istanbul in a calmer and less touristy period, autumn can mean your season.



  • If you want to visit the Islands in Istanbul, the best time for visiting the Islands is summer. Although the Islands are a bit crowded during the summer months, the sea offers various activities. You can get beautiful and fresh food produced by the island people throughout the year. Islands are a preferable alternative for a peaceful holiday in winter.
  • If you are planning to plunder Istanbul and visit all historical monuments, summer can be a very challenging period. Therefore, take care to take your holiday in the spring months. Since Istanbul is a bit calmer and cooler during these periods, you can easily reach different places.
  • If you have a plan to shop in Istanbul and think about when to go to Istanbul, shopping mall culture is common in Istanbul and therefore you can come in every season. If you have a plan to shop at affordable prices, you can visit Istanbul at times suitable for the discount periods in the shopping malls.
  • If your aim is to visit the markets of Istanbul, then take care to be in this city in the summer; those big markets are much more chirpy in the summer.

In summary, you have the answer to the question of when to go to Istanbul. Because Istanbul has a structure that can be visited in any period. If you want to get to know Istanbul, Istanbul will open its doors to you every season. While wandering through the streets of the city, you can come across traces of Yeşilçam days, Armenian architectures, and the streets where Atatürk passed. Do not forget to raise your head and roam in Istanbul because there are descriptions in many apartments. Notes are written on the streets and apartments where poets, writers, and celebrities live, even the period in which the person was present and on which floor he lives. Istanbul is one of the special places where you can pass historical monuments. You can always find the opportunity to visit the history of Istanbul as a stone or a means of transportation called a tunnel. Istanbul is a timeless city, you get different tastes every period.

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Where Istanbul Is Located: The Geographical Location of Istanbul



Istanbul province is the largest city in Turkey and Europe. Istanbul is a city that has been the capital of many civilizations. The City of Istanbul served as the Capital of the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, the Latin Empire, and finally the Ottoman Empire as it is known. The geography of Istanbul is at such an important point that it constitutes the transition zone between many countries. Many civilizations have lived in the city of Istanbul so far. There are ruins from 5000 BC in Istanbul, which show how old its history is. Istanbul province is also one of the few cities in the world with a population of approximately 16 million. So do you know where is Istanbul located?

Istanbul is located between 280 01 ‘and 290 55’ east longitudes and 410 33 ‘and 400 28’ north latitudes. The provincial lands of Istanbul cover a total area of ​​5,512 km2. Istanbul is a city that acts as a bridge between the European and Asian continents and is built on the two ends where they are closest to each other. These ends are Çatalca in the European continent, Kocaeli in the Asian continent; It is surrounded by Marmara and Bursa from the south, Tekirdağ from the southwest, and Kırklareli from the northwest. The real Istanbul, which is located on the peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Marmara, from which the city is named, is 253 km², and the whole is 5.712 km². Islands in the Sea of ​​Marmara are also included in the province of Istanbul.



The vegetation around Istanbul resembles the plants of the Mediterranean climate. The most common plant species in the region is “scrub”. These plants have adapted to a long dry summer. However, the hills are not bare due to the nature of the climate. The most important of the forested areas seen in patches is the Belgrad Forest, 20 km north of the city. There is no big river in Istanbul province. The largest stream is Riva Stream, which is also the largest water of the Kocaeli Peninsula. The 71 km Riva Stream takes its sources from Kocaeli province and flows in the southeast-northwest direction and flows into the Black Sea near Riva village.

The most important of the waters pouring into the Bosphorus are Küçüksu and Göksu streams. Apart from these, Kağıthane and Alibey Streams flowing into the Golden Horn, Sazlıdere flowing into Küçükçekmece Lake, Karasu Creek flowing into Büyükçekmece Lake, Trança Creek flowing into Terkos Lake are the main rivers of Istanbul. The water of the city is provided from here. The waters of Küçükçekmece (11 km²) and Büyükçekmece (16 km²) Lakes, which are located on the shores of the Marmara Sea, are salty due to their contact with the sea.

Although the summer months are generally hot and the winter months are not too cold due to the systems that affect the region, Istanbul seems to have the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, but it has different characteristics with the influence of the Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus. During the winter months, the cold-dry air mass coming from the Black Sea and the cold-rainy air mass coming from the Balkans are especially under the influence of the warm and rainy southern air masses from the Mediterranean. The cold rainy (northeaster) weather of the Black Sea and the warm (southwester) air of the Mediterranean follow each other throughout the province. There are no big temperature differences between summer and winter and day and night in the province.

Geographical Location and Strategic Importance of Istanbul


The seas and lands divided the geography of Istanbul, which is embroidered like lace, into 4 parts. Old Istanbul and Galata are located on the shores of the Golden Horn, and on both sides of the Bosphorus, formerly separate villages, now united settlement areas. Inhabited areas along the shores of the Marmara Sea, the smallest sea in the world, show the size of the city has reached. The Old City is spread over the 7 hills of a triangular peninsula surrounded by 22 km of city walls. Located in the center of the Old World, Istanbul is a very important megalopolis with its historical monuments and magnificent natural landscapes. It is the only city in the world built on two continents where the Asian and European Continents are separated by a narrow sea passage.



Having a history of more than 2500 years, Istanbul became an important trade center following its establishment in this strategic region where sea and land meet. The historical city of Istanbul is located on a peninsula surrounded by the Marmara Sea, the Bosphorus, and the Golden Horn on three sides. Istanbul is located between 280 01 ‘and 290 55’ east longitudes and 410 33 ‘and 400 28’ north latitudes. While the Istanbul Strait connects the Black Sea with the Sea of ​​Marmara; It separates the Asian Continent from the European Continent and divides the city of Istanbul into two. The province borders the Black Sea in the north, the high hills of the Kocaeli Mountain Range in the east, the Marmara Sea in the south, and the water divide line of the Ergene Basin in the west.

It is the fortune of Istanbul to be located at the crossroads where the main roads reach the sea, an easily defended peninsula, ideal climate, rich and generous nature, strategic control of the Bosphorus, and its geographical location in the center of the world. Istanbul has had a very important strategic importance throughout history due to its location at the confluence of two continents, being a gateway to hot climates and oceans, and being the gateway of the historical Silk Road to Europe. The city became the capital of 3 world empires, namely the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Turks, and more than 120 emperors and sultans ruled here for more than 1600 years.

Istanbul is the only city in the world with these characteristics. During the development process, the city was expanded four times, each time building further west. There was Istanbul, surrounded by 5th-century Roman period walls and built on 7 hills. But the foundations of today’s Istanbul were laid in the 7th century BC. It was rebuilt by Emperor Constantin in the 4th century AD and made the capital city; After that day, it continued its title of capital during the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman periods for about 16 centuries. At the same time, Istanbul, which was one of the centers of Christianity with Emperor Constantine, was considered one of the most important cities of the Islamic religion after it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1453.



While it was the capital of the empires, it was the administrative center of the religions together with the state, the Eastern Christianity Patriarchate was based in this city since its establishment, and the first biggest churches and monasteries of the Christian world rose above the pagan temples here. After the conquest of Istanbul, in a century or so, artworks, mosques, palaces, schools, baths, and other facilities furnished the city and transformed it into an Islamic character, and some of the ruined churches were repaired and converted into mosques.

Istanbul Metropolitan is located on Kocaeli and Çatalca Peninsulas. Both peninsulas are eroded plateaus. While Istanbul and its surroundings were a gulf of the Sarmat inland sea at the end of the Miocene period of the III Period in geological times, in the Pliocene period the sea was withdrawn, lands emerged, and after a long erosion period with stream and wind erosion, the elevations disappeared, the abrasion-resistant quartzite hills remained and a peneplane has emerged. The valley at the place of the Bosphorus has also widened. Later, with the swelling of the northern part in the east of the Bosphorus Valley of the peneplain, and the swelling of the south part in the west, the water section lines changed, water erosion increased due to the increase in the slope of the river valleys, large streams on the east side of the Black Sea and on the west side the Marmara Sea was spilled into the seas.

As a result of the said geological movements, the area where the Metropolitan of Istanbul is located has gained the appearance of a plateau (peneplane) containing generally eroded landforms. Valleys, plains, heights (slightly wavy hilly areas), high areas, etc., which can be grouped as geomorphological units, do not have a sharp and striking appearance in the metropolitan area of ​​Istanbul for the reasons explained. On the cold side (Kocaeli Plateau), there are quartzite hills (Aydos, Kayışdağı, Alemdağ, etc.) and high areas starting from the east of the Gebze – Ömerli Dam line and continuing to rise towards the east (350m +). In this peninsula, the “water section line” is closer to the Marmara shores. In the remaining parts of the peneplain, the flow direction of the streams is mostly the Black Sea and includes wide valley-based and slightly wavy areas.



On the west side (in Çatalca or Thrace Peneplane), apart from a few hills reaching and exceeding 200 m in places from the Bosphorus to Büyükçekmece – Karacaköy line, there is also a peneplane with wide base river valleys. However, in this peninsula, the “water section line” is closer to the Black Sea this time. Rivers mostly give water to the Golden Horn, Büyük and Küçükçekmece lakes and the Marmara Sea. Terkos lake, on the other hand, gets its main water from the Istranca Mountains in the northwest. Except for Istranca, which has heights above 350 m in places, it is located to the west of Çatalca, also to the west of the Kestanelik – Belgrad Villages line, their height is 200-350 m. varying hills and ridges are outstanding.

Climate and Vegetation of Istanbul


It is not possible to evaluate the climate type in the area where the entire province of Istanbul is located in a specific climate type. Due to its geographical location and physical geography features, it has different climatic characteristics than the climates of many settlements located at the same latitude. Istanbul within the low and high-pressure zones that start from the equator on the earth and repeat twice respectively (with 41 degrees north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude), is at the border of the western winds with subtropical high-pressure zone, and low pressures of the cold-warm region or terrestrial (humidity) low winds (humid and wet). Different climatic conditions occur in winter and summer seasons with the movements of the earth.

Three types of air are dominant throughout the year in Istanbul. These are air types introduced from the north and south and calm air types. Weather types depending on east and west winds are not important. Among the three types of air, it is the type of weather that shows the highest frequency (the most blowing number) when the northern winds are dominant. There are four periods according to the seasons; Two transition cycles, one long and one short, with cold and hot cycles. The metropolitan area of ​​Istanbul consists of natural vegetation, forest, maquis (more woody maquis plant communities that have adapted to the Black Sea climate, changed, moist character) and coastal plants; Plant communities in Çatalca and Kocaeli Peninsula that adapt to the climatic conditions have developed “humid” in the north and “dry” in the south.



Kocaeli Peninsula has deciduous species such as cranberry, hazelnut, deer thistle, moth bush, medlar, wild plum, blackberry, rowan gorse, maple, elderberry, sumac, privet and bearberry, maple, arbutus, heather, laurel, mule, tar postman, and it also consists of elements such as kermes oak, laden and mastic. The tree species that characterize the humid forest are chestnut, beech, common hornbeam, and stalked oak, mostly seen in the north-east of the I. Strait, north of Alemdağ and around Polonezköy. In the region between Riva Stream and Gökdere in Ağva, stalked oak in the west and Hungarian oak in the east are the dominant species. Vegetation is related not only to climate but also to soil. While lime-free brown forest soils cover the areas where all beech troops are located, brown forest soils are seen in the areas of oak and chestnut species.

The General Location Information of Istanbul


Istanbul, Turkey’s most important province in many respects, is also one of the world’s most important points in terms of its location on earth. Istanbul has an area of ​​5.220 km in the Marmara Region, facing the Black Sea in the north and surrounded by the Marmara Sea and the Golden Horn in the south. Istanbul has gained a reputation as “the city with lands on two continents” due to its lands on both sides of the Bosphorus, which is one of the most important waterways of the world, which separates the Asian Continent from the European Continent. Istanbul is approximately at the intersection of 41.8 north latitude and 29th east longitude.

A large part of today’s Istanbul is on the European side and the other part is on the Asian continent. Istanbul is an important passage area between lands and seas. It has Anatolia and the Balkan Peninsula on one side and the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea on the other. It borders the Black Sea in the north, the high hills of the Kocaeli Mountain Range in the east, the Marmara Sea in the south, and the water dividing line of the Ergene Basin in the west. The provincial area is surrounded administratively in the east and southeast with Kocaeli’s Karamürsel, Gebze central and Kandıra districts, Bursa’s Gemlik and Orhangazi districts from the south, Tekirdağ’s Çerkezköy and Saray districts from the west and northwest, as well as the Vizne district of Kırıkkale.



Istanbul has the characteristic of a plateau with its general appearance. The high plains are divided by streams. 91% of the provincial land, 74.4% of which is covered by plateaus, is suitable for agriculture. The Bosphorus, which separates the Asian and European continents, turns from north to southwest and maintains its parallelism, even though the coasts are partially closer to each other. The distance between both coasts is 29.9 km on the line between Sarayburnu and Kızkulesi. The length of the coasts is 32.2 km from the Asian side between Ahırkapı Lighthouse and Kavak Cape, and 46 km between Rumeli Lighthouse and Ahırkapı Lighthouse (including the Golden Horn). There are eleven islands connected to Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara.

Landforms Located in Istanbul


Istanbul is composed of a plateau group, squeezed between two main peneplains located in the eastern Marmara part of the Marmara Basin, and fragmented by the strait and river valleys. The foundations of its soils consist of 1st-period old rocks. In later geological times, the rise and fall, erosion, sharp ridges, steep mountains, and very rugged topography disappeared, replaced by flat areas, round hills, and low ridges.

The place where today’s Bosphorus is located was the valley of two streams, one into the Black Sea and the other into the Sea of ​​Marmara Region. During the compression and uplift that occurred between the 2nd and 3rd time, the Asian part located in the west of the valleys was hit to the south, and the Asian part located to the east of the valleys to the north. As a result of this incident, the current Bosphorus emerged with the breaking of the river valleys. The valleys formed by many streams and streams in the region and the small agricultural areas that emerged with the expansion of these valleys in places, the hills, and ridges that lost their steepness constitute the landforms of Istanbul.



It is a plateau community scattered between Istanbul, Thrace, and Kocaeli semi-plains. These plateaus are surrounded by seas from the north and south. Plateaus surrounded by seas generally extend in the west-northwest, east-southeast directions. 74% of its territory. The plateaus, which cover 4 of them and are divided into two parts by the strait, are not symmetrical in the east and west. While the plateaus to the west of the Bosphorus create a smooth and slightly wavy surface, the eastern ones are less developed and wavier. The most important plateaus in the province are Beyoğlu, Istanbul, and Üsküdar plateaus. The plateau that fills between the Bosphorus and the estuary in the province is called the Beyoğlu plateau. The plateau was largely removed by abrasion in both directions. For this reason, plateau depressions and valleys were formed by the combination of these depressions. The great ridge running in the direction of Galata-Beyoğlu-Şişli, Maslak-Darbent Büyükdere forms the waterline of the Beyoğlu plateau.

The triangle-shaped peninsula between the estuary where it was founded and the Marmara Sea is called the Istanbul plateau. It forms the highest city walls of Istanbul. The plateau of Istanbul starts from Saraburnu and extends by expanding in both directions. Beyazıt, Edirnekapı, Sarayburnu, Hagia Sophia constitute the higher parts of the Istanbul Plateau. The Istanbul plateau, like the Beyoğlu plateau, has been eroded from both sides. Although the shores of the plateau facing the Marmara are narrow and indented, it has become wider and flattened from Kum Kapı to Yenikapı.



The plateaus that fill the Asian side of Istanbul rise in steps starting from the Bosphorus and the Marmara shores. These steps end at Büyük and Küçük Çamlıca Hills. Big and Small Çamlıca Hills look like mountain peaks with their conical structures according to the flat shapes of the region. Another important plateau of Istanbul is the Üsküdar plateau. This plateau is divided into several sections with erosion grooves just like the Beyoğlu and Istanbul Plateaus. When going from Üsküdar to Ömerli and Şile direction, the plateau reaches the water section line in a short distance and loses its altitude and extends to the Black Sea.

Geographical Advantage: The Location of Istanbul Airport


Istanbul Airport serves as one of the most important aviation centers in the world with its strategic geographic location connecting the continents in Istanbul, at the crossroads of Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The international air freight sector grew by 5.6% over the past 10 years worldwide, Turkey recorded 14% growth. Istanbul, which has become one of the most important flights and transfer hubs in the world, plays the leading role in this growth. According to the data of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Turkey, the number of foreign tourists coming to Istanbul increased by 17.8% in 2017 compared to the previous year. It is observed that a similar positive momentum continues in 2018 and it is predicted that the growth trend will continue.

According to the report published by the European Council of International Airports (ACI Europe), in February 2018, Istanbul Atatürk Airport was the one with the highest increase in the number of passengers among the top 5 airports in Europe, with an increase of 17.7%. Sabiha Gökçen took second place with the highest increase in passenger traffic among the airports in the Group 1 category with 15.5% after Istanbul Atatürk. In the Council’s 2018 Airport Industry Connection Report, Istanbul Atatürk Airport was ranked fifth with the number of direct connections and flight volume in flights between European airports.



In the same report, Atatürk Airport, which ranked fourth among the highest performing airports in Europe for the last 10 years, was announced as the fourth among the main flight centers with the highest connection volume. Istanbul Airport has made Istanbul, the center of wide geography stretching from the East to the West, stronger with its extremely high capacity, the rich variety of facilities, and solid infrastructure possibilities. With its strategic location on transfer routes, it operates as a center of attraction for transit flights between the USA and Europe and the Middle East, Central Asia, and Northern India via Istanbul.

Today, Istanbul Airport, which provides transportation to 120+ countries, 60+ capitals, 250+ international destinations, and 50 domestic destinations, flies to 146 destinations from different continents within 3 hours. When the airport is put into service at full capacity, flights will be arranged to more than 350 destinations. In addition to passenger transportation, Istanbul is also the hub between Asia and Europe in air cargo transportation. Cargo operations showed a significant increase of 18.7% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) between 2009-2017. Istanbul Airport also serves as a center with heavy traffic for air cargo transportation.

About the Valleys Located Near Istanbul


The valleys of the Istanbul region seem quite interesting in terms of the origin and evolution of the geomorphological forms in the region on the one hand, and the formation of the Bosphorus on the other. The main valleys in the region are İstranca Stream, Karasu Stream, Sazlı Stream, Şamlar Stream, Alibey and Kağıthane creeks, Göksu Stream, Riva Stream, Ulu Dere, Gök Dere, and Çatak Stream valleys. Most of these valleys lie in a rather northwest-southeast direction. Although the valleys on the Kocaeli peninsula generally flow towards the northwest and north, those on the Çatalca peninsula open towards the southeast.

However, the fact that the valleys run parallel to each other is seen as an important fact that draws attention. Furthermore, it is observed that the valleys extend parallel to the general direction of the Istanbul massif and its cover layers, on the one hand, and to the dissymmetric ridges formed on the cover layers with peaks on the other hand. These observations show that the great valleys were formed as tufts according to the Mesozoic and tertiary layers in the region and the relief that occurred above them. As explained by the general diving of the Mesozoic layers in this area, the south-west facing slopes of the Kocaeli peninsula valleys are more inclined than the slopes facing the northeast, as well as the dissymmetric slopes on the Çatalca peninsula are related to the general slope of the Eocene layers here.



As a matter of fact, the wide valley formed by the Alibey-Kâğıthane stream system, which runs parallel to the eastern edge of the Eocene strata, was formed as a result of the evolution of an old sub-secant valley, as in the other valleys of the region. It is understood that today’s valley bottoms and stream beds were formed over-the-counter, according to the quaternary and Pliocene archaea formations that were previously collected in the valley. As for the valleys around the Bosphorus, they are gathered in three main areas, in terms of their geomorphological status, around the southern part of the Bosphorus, the southern part of the Bosphorus, and the northern circumference of the Bosphorus.

Among those around the south mouth of the Bosphorus, Maltepe Creek, Bostancı Creek, Kurbağalı Creek, Yenikapı Creek, Çırpıcı Creek, Çavuşbaşı Creek, and Uzunca Dere valleys can be seen in particular. It is understood that these valleys are seen over the sea maps with medium micas, which do not contain much detail, and it is understood that they continue under the sea, which shows that they played an important role in the formation of the gulf here, together with the main valley located at a depth of 100 meters in the same place. The apparent expanse of the valleys and the gulf must be related to the presence of the less resistant Neogene land here. The relations of the native valleys in the southern part of the Bosphorus with the Bosphorus valley are also remarkable.

Most of these have a normal junction with the Bosphorus pivot, generally forming acute angles opening towards the north. Both this situation and the leveling patterns in this part of the Bosphorus and the ridges are generally inclined towards the south; In addition, the presence of epigenetic breaches corresponding to areas where hard devon lands such as siliceous schist, lumpy limestone, dense limestone emerged suggests that a valley previously opening towards the south may exist in this part of the Bosphorus. In the northern part of the strait, it is understood that a separate valley system has been formed. In this section, some eastern subordinates such as Kabakoz, Çakal, Poyraz, Keçilik and the western subordinates named Sazlı, Garipçe, Rumelikavağı, and Sarıyer merge with the axis of the Bosphorus, rather at acute angles to the south.



This situation reminds us that there may be an old valley opening towards the northeast in this part as well. The fact that this ancient valley is suitable for the coastal valleys between the mouth of the Riva valley and Kilyos in terms of extension and flow direction seems to be a remarkable geomorphological feature. Accordingly, this northern Bosphorus valley is perhaps one of the submerged natural valleys of the Riva valley. The northern Bosphorus valley, which can be followed up to the vicinity of Büyükdere in a fairly certain way, at a stage that has not yet been determined, perhaps extended to the present mouth areas of the Göksu and Küçüksu valleys and became a continuation of them.

It seems probable that the current subdivision lines passing over the peaks of the Kocaeli peninsula and the Çatalca peninsula with high relief and finally over the epigenetic breach areas once passed between the southern Bosphorus valley system and the northern Bosphorus valley system. If a comparison is made between the body and relief shapes of the Dardanelles region and those in the Istanbul Strait region, some important differences are immediately noticeable. A monoclinal structure is dominant in the Dardanelles region.

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All You Need to Know About 1999 Istanbul Earthquake



The 1999 Istanbul Earthquake is a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that took place near the Gölcük district of Kocaeli at 03:01:40 on August 17, 1999. Due to the 37-second 1999 Istanbul Earthquake, 17 thousand people lost their lives and more than 500 thousand people were left homeless. Istanbul, Kocaeli, Istanbul, Yalova, Bursa, and Sakarya were the places where the material and moral effects of the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake were felt the most.

The earthquake that caused massive destruction in the most advanced and extensive industrial field of Turkey caused serious danger due to the leak in the oil refinery in Kocaeli. On 19 October 1999, the authorities announced that 17,127 people died and 43,959 people were injured in the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake. Some sources suggested that the number of people who died was around 45 thousand. In the report dated September 1999, it was stated that 120 thousand houses became unusable, 30 thousand houses were badly damaged, 2 thousand buildings collapsed and 4 thousand buildings were damaged. The report also noted that 300,000 people were homeless.



1999 Istanbul Earthquake occurred on the North Anatolian Fault Line. The Anatolian Plate is cramped between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates and shifts approximately 2 to 2.5 cm westward each year. major earthquakes occurred on the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey occurs and East Anatolian Fault. Due to the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake, a 150 km-long break occurred in the fault line extending from Düzce to İzmit Bay. In the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake, especially the Avcılar district of Istanbul was severely damaged due to the sedimentary rock ground.

Due to the earthquake, 20 viaducts, 5 tunnels, and some overpasses on the European E-road E80 were destroyed. The Istanbul Earthquake created 2.5 meters of tsunami waves in the Sea of ​​Marmara. 155 people lost their lives due to the tsunami. 24 to 48 hours after the 1999 earthquake in Istanbul, welfare associations from 12 countries came to Turkey. A special team came from England to stop the leak in the Tüpraş Refinery. US President Bill Clinton visited Istanbul and Izmit.

There are many interesting and unexplained events allegedly happened during the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake. But the veracity of these narratives is controversial and there is no evidence that they are true. Many people say that on the night that connects August 16, 1999, to August 17, 1999, there were enough stars in the sky as if they could be caught with hand. There are also some rumors that a fireball was seen around Izmit Bay during the earthquake. Some people say that he witnessed paranormal events on the morning of 1999.

Detailed Information About 1999 Istanbul Earthquake


The 7.4 magnitude earthquake that occurred in 1999 on the night of August 16 to 17 was recorded as the second-largest earthquake in the history of Turkey. The earthquake, whose epicenter was Gölcük, was felt throughout the Marmara Region. The earthquake that occurred with the breaking of the North Anatolian Fault Line caused the loss of life and property in Istanbul, Bolu, Bursa, Eskişehir, Kocaeli, Sakarya, and Yalova. The earthquake that occurred on the western side of the North Anatolian Fault line which passes through the northern regions of Turkey started at 03:01 am on Tuesday, 17 August 1999, and lasted 45 seconds.



The epicenter of the earthquake was announced as the Gölcük district of İzmit. Its size is 7.6 according to the Richter scale by the US Geological Survey (USGS); It was measured as 7.8 by the Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory. However, today the magnitude of the earthquake is generally accepted as 7.4, which was announced in the first statements, and this measure is used. August 17th earthquake in Turkey in terms of size was recorded as the second largest earthquakes occurred. It was determined that the earth’s crust moved to the right during the 17-kilometer-deep shaking and broke along a 120-kilometer line.

Geological View of 1999 Istanbul Earthquake


In the report published three months after the earthquake, the Chamber of Geological Engineers wrote that the areas passing over the fault shifted to the right and forward by about 4 meters. In the same report, it was stated that after the rupture in the main epicenter in Gölcük, it is thought that another earthquake base in the Arifiye region located further east on the same fault zone may have been activated. About three months after the 17 August earthquake, another earthquake occurred, this time on 12 November, on the North Anatolian Fault Line, with Düzce as its epicenter. 845 people died in Düzce Earthquake, which was 7.2 magnitude and lasted 30 seconds.

These two earthquakes within three months over magnitude 7 occurred, risk, and especially to occur in the south of the fault line in Istanbul has caused more to the discussion of measures to be taken against the expected break in Turkey. August 17th earthquake, as well as population density, should also affect Turkey’s most important region in terms of economic activity. According to official figures, 18 thousand 373 people lost their lives and 48 thousand 901 people were injured in the earthquake. 5 thousand 840 people also disappeared. However, local people argue that the loss of life is much higher. Unofficial sources claim that the loss of life was around 50 thousand.



In some places, such as Gölcük, Değirmendere, and Karamürsel, located in the south of İzmit Bay, the parts close to the beach being submerged under sea waters due to an earthquake are shown as the most important factor that makes it difficult to determine the loss of life and damage. According to the statement made by the Prime Ministry Crisis Center a few months after the earthquake, most casualties were in Gölcük with approximately 4,500 people. While the recorded loss of life in Kocaeli was 4 thousand, approximately 2 thousand 500 people died in Yalova and Sakarya. 976 people lost their lives in the Avcılar district of Istanbul, which was affected by the earthquake.

In the report published in July 2010 by the Assembly Research Commission Established to Investigate the Risk of Earthquake and Determine the Measures to be Taken in Earthquake Management, it was stated that 364,905 houses and workplaces were destroyed or damaged at various levels in the earthquake. A significant portion of the casualties was the result of buildings being destroyed or severely damaged. The Chamber of Geological Engineers, in its report published in 1999, listed the three most important factors that increase the loss of life as follows:

  • Active Fault Zone: Although the active fault line is known in advance, the dense settlement and high population potential along this line have increased the damage and loss of life. As it moves away from the fault zone, it is observed that there is no or very little damage especially on the slopes and mountain foothills.
  • Wet Alluvial Ground: Between Bolu and Yalova, the fault zone and its immediate surroundings are composed of extremely soft and loosely attached clay, sand, and gravel deposits and alluvial ground. Such floors have negative features that will increase the current earthquake intensity several times.
  • Construction faults: The zone is within the boundaries of the 1st-degree earthquake zone. In this case and while complying with earthquake regulations is compulsory, a significant part of the heavy damage and high-rate casualties in earthquakes are caused by construction errors, incorrect foundation designs that do not comply with the ground conditions, bad workmanship and building material defects and rottenness used in construction.

Economical Outcomes of 1999 Istanbul Earthquake


The August 17 earthquake also had serious negative effects on the economy. According to the calculations made by different institutions, the economic cost of the earthquake varies between 12 and 20 billion dollars. The State Planning Organization calculates this cost as 15-19 billion dollars, the World Bank as 12-17 billion dollars, and the Turkish Industry and Business Association (TÜSİAD) as 17 billion dollars. After the earthquake, the need for external resources increased, especially due to restructuring efforts, and the suspension of production activities for a while in the industrial zone caused the economy to shrink.

Turkey’s largest oil refinery Tüpraş took the fire for days. Some studies show that the impact of the 1999 earthquake was among the effective reasons for the 2001 economic crisis. After the first shock caused by the earthquake was over, the focus was on search and rescue activities in the first place and debris removal after a while. In addition to public organizations such as the Red Crescent and Civil Defense Units, private and voluntary groups such as the Search and Rescue Team (AKUT) also played an active role in aid efforts. In addition, aid workers came from many countries, including Britain, Greece, the USA, and Japan.



At that time, the coalition government formed by the Democratic Left Party (DSP), Motherland Party (ANAP), and Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) was heavily criticized for being late in sending aid teams and supplies to the places hit by the earthquake. It took days for rescuers to reach some places. Debris removal efforts continued for months at some points. After August 17, the earthquake has become the subject of Turkey’s most important agenda item. The government under the prime minister Bülent Ecevit has enacted a series of legal regulations both to be used in post-earthquake relief and rescue efforts and to eliminate the effects of the economic damage caused by the earthquake. Among the arrangements made were the following:

  • A number of new taxes were introduced, especially the Special Communication Tax, and most of these taxes are still in effect.
  • The National Earthquake Council, consisting of 20 scientists and researchers, was established but was dissolved in 2007.
  • Earthquake containers were placed in many points of Istanbul and meeting areas were determined. Most of the determined gathering areas were later opened to development.
  • Earthquake insurance has been made compulsory
  • The number of search and rescue teams across Turkey increased
  • A number of changes were made to the zoning laws. After the earthquake, the earthquake resistance principles and control rules of the buildings were changed. In 2007, 2012, and finally, in 2019, serious changes were made in the regulations.

The Heavy Loss Caused by the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake


It has been 21 years since the painful earthquake of 17 August 1999, when tens of thousands of people died, were injured and disabled, and the economy was hit hard. The Marmara earthquake, whose epicenter was in Gölcük district of Kocaeli, and occurred at 03.02 local times, was felt in a wide area from Ankara to Izmir. According to official reports, 17 thousand 840 people died, 23 thousand 781 people were injured and 505 people were disabled in the earthquake of 7.4 magnitudes, which lasted about 45 seconds. In the earthquake that caused great loss of life and property, 285 thousand 211 houses and 42 thousand 902 workplaces were badly damaged.

While most citizens were caught in the earthquake sleep that took place in the late evening, the buildings not being made resistant to earthquakes, especially in Kocaeli Gölcük, and the use of wrong and incomplete materials caused a high loss of life and property. Turkey’s place in the Marmara earthquake, which is an important industrial region, has caused significant financial damage in wide geography, was a blow to the national economy. About 23 percent of Turkey’s population was living and 34 percent of GDP was being created in the area where the earthquake was effective.



Considering factors such as 46 percent of the value-added created in the industry emerged in the earthquake zone, 58 percent of the tax revenues in the budget occurred in the region affected by the earthquake, and the region’s per capita being higher than the average of the country, financial losses are more clearly revealed. The economic effects of the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake were a blow to the macro-economic indicators such as GDP, employment, growth, and public expenditure as well as the tourism sector that provide a significant amount of foreign currency entry for the economy. After the 1999 Istanbul earthquake, Turkey’s tourism revenues decreased by 40 percent compared to the previous year.

In various studies conducted by the Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen Association (TÜSİAD), State Planning Organization (SPO), and the World Bank, the values ​​of the macroeconomic costs of the 1999 Gulf Earthquake and the impact of the earthquake on the economy are clearly seen. The impact of the earthquake on the economy is $ 17 billion according to TUSIAD, $ 15-19 billion according to SPO, and $ 12-17 billion according to the World Bank. In this context, according to the evaluation of TÜSİAD, the earthquake caused the loss of 9 percent of the GDP, while this number is 8 to 10 percent according to the SPO, and 6.3 to 9 percent according to the World Bank.



Cash assistance of 161.6 trillion Liras was received for the damages caused by the Marmara earthquake, and 156.6 trillion Liras were spent. According to the examination of the earthquake accounts of the Prime Ministry Inspection Board, the amount accumulated in the central account opened with Ziraat Bank for the earthquake that took place on 17 August 1999 reached 161 trillion 665.6 billion Liras as of October 1, 2001. A total of 156 trillion 520.4 billion Lira was spent from this account, while the rest was transferred to the Disaster Fund, the Disaster Regional Coordinator, and other institutions and organizations for post-earthquake services.

After the Marmara earthquake, a loan of approximately 3.5 billion dollars was obtained from various countries and international financial institutions. With the loans provided from abroad, a total of 75 projects and sub-projects were financed for the earthquake zone, where Kocaeli, Istanbul, Bolu, Düzce, Yalova, and Sakarya are located. The credits in question were generally used in the earthquake region for housing construction and new housing networks, new hospital constructions and rehabilitation of health units, primary school constructions, renewal of transportation systems, especially rail and road, and financing support to SMEs. Even though, it was really tough to get back to normal life after such a horrible event. Still, helps and aids from the environment is very good both for social solidarity and for togetherness. That is why all countries, even every person who can, should help the people affected by an event like this.

Quantitative Information About 1999 Istanbul Earthquake


The 17 August earthquake was felt throughout the Marmara Region, in a wide area from Ankara to Izmir. According to official reports, there were 17,480 deaths and 23,781 injuries. 505 people were disabled. 285,211 houses and 42,902 workplaces were damaged. In addition, with 133,683 collapsed buildings, approximately 600,000 people were left homeless. Approximately 16,000,000 people were affected by the earthquake to varying degrees. Therefore, it is one of the most important events which deeply influenced the recent history of Turkey. The earthquake is one of the biggest earthquakes of the last century in terms of both the size, the width of the affected area, and the material losses it caused. The fact that the earthquake occurred in the Marmara Region, which is an important industrial zone of the country, and affected very wide geography caused great difficulties in the country.

The earthquake, measuring 7.5 Mw on the Richter scale, occurred at 3:02 am, in the region described by 40.70 north latitude and 29.91 east longitude, 11 km southeast of Izmit. Although the magnitude of the earthquake has been reported by various institutions at different values, the magnitude of the moment intensity varies around Mw = 7.5 and the surface wave magnitude Ms = 7.7. In the Gölcük earthquake with official figures; While a total of 17.480 people lost their lives – 270 in Bolu, 268 in Bursa, 86 in Eskişehir, 981 in Istanbul, 9.477 in Kocaeli, 3.891 in Sakarya, 2.504 in Yalova and 3 in Zonguldak, in the Survey Report of the Assembly that was published in 2010, the number of buildings destroyed and severely damaged in this earthquake was corrected as 96.796 houses and 15.939 workplaces in addition to 48 thousand 901 injured and 505 disabled people.



The fact that the earthquake occurred in the Marmara Region, an important industrial zone of the country, and affected very wide geography, caused great difficulties in the country. The earthquake occurred on August 17, 1999, at 3:02 am, in the region defined by 40.70 north latitude and 29.91 east longitude, 11 km southeast of Izmit. Although the magnitude of the earthquake has been reported by various institutions at different values, the magnitude of the moment intensity varies around Mw = 7.5 and the surface wave magnitude Ms = 7.7.

  • Body Wave Intensity = 6.3 (USS)
  • Surface Wave Intensity = 7.8 (USGS)
  • Moment Intensity = 7,5 (Kandilli, USGS, General Directorate of Disaster Affairs, Earthquake Research Department, DGCA-DAD)
  • Record Duration Intensity = 6.7 (Kandilli)

It was determined by the investigations that the focal depth of the earthquake was 10-15 km and a fault movement occurred around 120 km with right-slip. After the main earthquake wave, many aftershocks with magnitudes of 4.0-5.0 occurred. Nearest momentum has shifted to the earthquake epicenter, General Directorate of Disaster Affairs Earthquake Research established all across Turkey by the Office of Records and Strong Motion Network, which is operated in a station that is taken from Izmit Meteorological Station. Accordingly, the maximum acceleration is 163 mG in the north-south direction, 220 mG in the east-west direction, and 123 mG in the vertical direction. All three components are of comparable size to each other.



In the recent past, severe earthquakes occurred in this region in 1943, 1957, 1967, including the Adapazarı epicenter. When we look at the history of the past, there are big earthquakes in this region every 30 years on average. After the 1999 earthquake, the expectation of earthquakes of various magnitudes in certain periods and various magnitudes is due to the characteristic feature of this fault line. After the earthquake, some regulations such as compulsory earthquake insurance were introduced.

The 99 earthquakes that affected the Marmara Region had a great impact all over the world. In total, 52 countries helped. Those countries are Germany, the United States of America, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belgium, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Algeria, Morocco, Finland, France, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Sweden, Italy, Japan, Cyprus. Greek part, TRNC, Hungary, Malaysia, Egypt, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Greece.

A Remarkable Research on the 1999 Istanbul Earthquake


Scientists from Boğaziçi and Stanford University reached new findings in the research on the usability of pioneering tremors in earthquake prediction in the light of the findings of the August 17 earthquake. According to the research, a total of 18 forescent earthquakes with magnitudes 0.9 to 2.8 occurred in a seismic station a few kilometers away from the earthquake outer center, recorded 44 minutes before the 7.6 magnitude earthquake. The last leading earthquake occurred just before the big break. According to the research results, the 1999 earthquake occurred with the domino effect of the earthquakes on the fault.

Academics from Boğaziçi University and Stanford University conducted a new study by reviewing the data on the 17 August 1999 Izmit earthquake, in which more than 17 thousand people died. In the new study, published in the June 2018 issue of the journal Nature Geoscience, it was discussed whether the possibility of a larger earthquake could be predicted by the leading tremors before the earthquake.



A study previously published in Science magazine in 2011 concluded that the 1999 Izmit Earthquake came after a series of small pioneering tremors, and these pioneering tremors were potential warning signs that a major earthquake would occur. However, joint research conducted by scientists from Boğaziçi and Stanford Universities has yielded staggering results about whether the pioneering tremors have an impact on earthquake prediction.

“We evaluated the 1999 Izmit earthquake and seismic data with new techniques that were not used that day,” said Dr. Fatih Bulut, a faculty member at Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute, Department of Geodesy. As a result of our research, we found that the forerunners were like any other small earthquake. “There was no distinctive indication of the way these pioneering tremors occurred, indicating that a major earthquake would happen,” he said.

“We want to find a scientifically valid way to warn the public before an earthquake occurs,” said William Ellsworth, a professor of geophysics, who participated in the research from the Stanford University School of Earthquake, Energy and Environmental Sciences. However, our research does not reach an optimal result in terms of earthquake prediction. Despite this, thanks to the pioneering tremors, we have become able to understand the earthquake onset physics in much more detail. ” Adding that in at least half of all major earthquakes, earthquakes occur after small leading tremors, Ellsworth said, “The predictability of the earthquake through these pioneering tremors depends on the separation of these pioneering tremors from ordinary earthquakes. “The research, published in the June issue of the journal Nature Geoscience, opens a whole new window on the way the earthquake occurs.”



Stating that they focused on the question of how earthquakes occur in the research, Fatih Bulut said, “The main objectives of this study were to understand the onset physics of earthquakes and to examine the predictability of earthquakes with pioneering tremors, which have been discussed for a long time. Pioneering tremors are one of the most important data sources that provide an explanation for how earthquakes occur. In 2011, French and Turkish geoscientists conducted a study for Science magazine analyzing the pioneering tremors of the 7.6 magnitude earthquake that took place on August 17th. According to the research, a total of 18 precursor earthquakes with magnitudes between 0.9 and 2.8 occurred at a seismic station a few kilometers away from the earthquake outer center, recorded 44 minutes before the 7.6 magnitude earthquake. “The last pioneering earthquake occurred just before the big break,” he explained.

According to the analysis of the Scientific research, the pioneering earthquakes occurred at a point about 15 kilometers below the earth, very close to the beginning of the 7.6 magnitude earthquake. In addition, the similarities in waveform and depth were interpreted as the benefit of 18 pioneering earthquakes occurred at the same point. Therefore, the researchers concluded that a “slow slip” occurred in the Izmit Earthquake. In other words, the rapid acceleration of the slide triggered the 7.6 magnitude earthquake. Research by monitoring similar slow slip events in Turkey and other active fault lines in the world can provide timely warnings were predicting big earthquakes before they occur. In our research, we decided to test this idea. “We have clearly seen that this is not the case with the results we have reached and that the 1999 Earthquake cannot be predicted by pioneering tremors.”

Instead of relying on data from a seismic station, Fatih Bulut and William Ellsworth used data from 10 stations, 100 kilometers in diameter, of the earthquake outer center that recorded the 1999 earthquake. Stating that they were able to determine the exact location of the earthquakes with the data they received from these 10 stations, Fatih Bulut said, “Since 44 minutes before the main earthquake, we detected a total of 26 pioneering earthquakes moving from west to east along the fault line. We have seen that all pioneering earthquakes occurred at close but different points from the fault line and none of them repeat. Our result shows that an earthquake occurs by triggering another earthquake at another adjacent point, as we call the multi-part rupture model.



In a sense, the 1999 earthquake occurred with the domino effect of the earthquakes on the fault. Thousands of occurring each year in the vanguard of the Izmit earthquake in Turkey can be distinguished from small earthquakes that have any qualifications. “The last earthquake that occurred one after another triggered the 7.6 magnitude earthquake,” he said. Fatih Bulut and William Ellsworth concluded that the slow sliding event had no effect in triggering the Izmit Earthquake and that the leading earthquakes were unqualifiable. Emphasizing that all the leading earthquakes occurred in different places along the fault line, William Ellsworth said, “None of these were repeating in a way that a great earthquake was coming.

Science research authors were overly optimistic about this, but what they claimed did not happen. Whether leading or not, we cannot say whether there will be a locally negligible small earthquake after a small earthquake or a large earthquake affecting a large area like the 1999 Izmit Earthquake. We do not even know why some major earthquakes have leading earthquakes but some do not. We continue our research on these issues. “The way to move forward is to make observations very close to the earthquake source with advanced instrumental equipment.”

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How Istanbul Was Conquered: The History of the Conquest of Istanbul



The Conquest of Istanbul was carried out on May 29, 1453, by the Ottoman sultan of the period, 21-year-old Mehmet II, and the Janissary Army under his command. With the conquest of Istanbul, the Byzantine Empire, which was the continuation of the 1500-year-old Roman Empire, fell apart and migration to the Christian world started in the city. Conquest of Istanbul is also the day when the Middle Ages ends and the New Age begins. The conquest of Istanbul is also of great importance in terms of military history. From ancient times until that time, city walls and city walls were the greatest means of defense that protected cities against the occupation. However, the Ottoman Army, using black powder during the war, managed to destroy the city walls.

With the siege of the Ottoman Empire, the huge cannons specially designed by the Sultan were launched. Byzantine attempts to repair the breaches that were opened when the cannon shots began to make breaches in the city walls at night. Suggesting that Istanbul cannot be taken without entering the Golden Horn, Sultan II. Mehmed thinks that the artilleries that are fired should be developed and launched to their target with a curved landing by inclining in the air and plans and draws accordingly. A wide road is opened from Dolmabahçe to the ridges of Beyoğlu is laid secretly along the way. Ships are launched overnight by walking from the land. II Mehmed orders a major offensive on 29 May. On Tuesday, 29 May 1453, Istanbul surrenders to the Ottoman troops.



After two attacks that started on the night of May 29 and continued until close to morning, a general attack started on Tuesday, May 29; The real result was the gap opened between Topkapı and Edirnekapısı and the central branch where the peddler was located was attacking here. The first general attack lasted two hours, followed by the second general attack lasted an hour and a half, and no result was obtained yet; the defenders also worked hard, killing those who climbed the stairs and climbed the walls with Grojuva fire and other means; No success was achieved in attacks on other arms.

Thereupon, the janissaries and reserve forces in the central branch were put forward as the last trump card. This time the pastor himself was with the janissaries; the emperor was also on this front; Meanwhile, Jüstinyani, the commander-in-chief who defended the walls with great determination, was injured in his hand and arm, and he withdrew by abandoning the defense, despite the emperor’s request, because he was more likely to lose blood. During this attack, the janissaries went as far as the ditch. The Pâdishah stopped them there and sent them to the attack under the auspices of the arrows and archers; the janissaries crossed the moat and stood against it.

Emperor Constantine XI defended the city with great determination despite many troubles and betrayals, and although he was offered to escape by sea, he refused and died near his soldier and for the defense of his country. Constantine was between forty-nine and fifty years old at his death. The number of prisoners taken after the conquest of Istanbul was about fifty thousand.

How Istanbul Was Conquered I: Siege Preparations


With the Ottoman expansion of his territory in the region, when Mehmet II took the throne, Istanbul was surrounded. The Byzantine Empire tightened chains to the Golden Horn during the siege and reinforced its navy. Another means of defense of Byzantium was the Grejuva. The Grejuva was not extinguished in water and was to be used effectively in both land and sea warfare. In order not to suffer during the siege, provisions, and ammunition storages were reinforced; The number of guards and soldiers from various countries was increased and the city walls were strengthened. Along with three galleys, 200 soldiers and ammunition were sent by the Papacy, and 30 ships were reported to be prepared for the expedition.

In January 1453, together with two ships, 700 soldiers under the command of the Genoese commander Giovanni Giustiniani came to help. Guistiniani was appointed commander in chief by the emperor Constantine. If the battle ended in Byzantine victory, the island of Limnos would be given to Giustiniani. The main element in the defense plan of Byzantium was the walls of Istanbul. The walls of Istanbul were not designed only against an attack from the land; The seaside of the city was also completely surrounded by walls. Today, the area known as Sarayburnu was completely isolated from the sea.



Heavy cannons were built to be used by the Ottomans during the siege. The “Shahi” ball, which was built by an engineer named Urban, who was kidnapped by sewers from Byzantine dungeons, was one of them, its single shot was around 550 kilograms and the length of the ball was 8 meters and its circumference was 2.5 meters. In order to completely disconnect Istanbul from the sea and to prevent any aid from the city during the siege, II. Mehmet found it necessary to build the Rumeli Fortress opposite Anadolu Hisarı.

There are various opinions about the size of the Ottoman army, according to Hammer it was 250,000, according to Barbaro 160,000, and according to Sfrantzes and Dukas 200,000 soldiers. The Ottoman Navy was also prepared to support the sea during the siege; There are different opinions about the existence of the fleet given under the command of Baltaoğlu Süleyman Pasha; Dukas says 300 and Georgios Francis says 160. Before the siege, some castles and towns around the city were captured by 10,000 soldiers under the command of Karaca Pasha.

On April 6, 1453, the Ottoman land army was positioned in front of the city walls, extending from the Golden Horn to the Marmara. The Ottoman army destroyed the suburbs around the city before the attack. The weakest parts of the walls were identified in order to choose where the guns would be deployed. Two days after the deployment of the cannons, the Ottoman Navy under the command of Baltaoğlu Süleyman Pasha captured Prinkipos (Büyükada) and Antigoni (Burgaz Island) and a Byzantine castle in Tarabya.



After the deployment of the balls, II. Mehmet sent his vizier Veli Mahmud Pasha to Emperor Constantine and demanded the surrender of the city. Constantine said he was sworn to protect the city, but that he could pay taxes if asked. Ottoman artillery fire began on April 12, 1453. According to many sources, these cannons, which were seen as powerful for their period, were making a great noise and demoralizing the defenders of the city. Ottoman cannons were loaded in about two hours, so artillery fire was not frequent. II. Mehmet wanted the cannons to be fired more frequently, and as a result, a cannon exploded, the master Urban and those around him died.

Although a repair shop was established in the camp to maintain the cannons, according to the historian Hammer, the shattered ball could not be repaired due to Urban’s death. Ottoman artillery fire continued until April 18. On April 18, at the point where the Ottoman central army was located, a breach was opened in the first and second walls on the sides of Bayrampaşa Stream. By order of Mehmet II, the ditch in front of the walls was filled with stones and sandbags. The Ottoman army launched a night attack. War towers were built by the order of Mehmet II to support the attack.

However, the Ottomans did not get any results from the night attack; the marching towers caught fire with Grejuvas, and the Ottoman soldiers who managed to climb the walls faced stubborn defense. In the same days, the Ottomans also launched a sea offensive; The Ottoman navy, which collapsed in front of the Golden Horn on April 15, 1453, could not break the chain due to the defense of Byzantine and allied navies and had to retreat. The failure of both attacks raised morale on the Byzantine side.

How Istanbul Was Conquered II: Sea Battle


On April 20, the aid fleet, consisting of a Byzantine and three Genoese galleons commanded by captain Flantanellas, approached Istanbul. II. Mehmet sent Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey to the aid fleet with 18 ships. The aid fleet, with the wind behind it, was advancing faster and the Ottoman ships could not dock. Four galleons remained motionless when the wind ceased off the coast of the area known today as Yeşilköy; Ottoman ships reached the galleons by rowing. Due to the prolongation of the fighting, the Ottoman ships that came from behind also caught up, and the Genoese-Byzantine fleet of four ships surrounded about 150 Ottoman ships. However, the superiority could not be established due to the galleons being higher than the Ottoman galleys and the inexperience of the crews on the foremost Ottoman ships.

Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey, who saw heavy casualties, ordered the navy to withdraw. Having seen defeat from a dominant hill, II. Mehmet got angry and tried to preach his orders to Baltaoğlu Süleyman by riding his horse into the sea. However, the Ottoman navy was defeated, the aid fleet continued on its way and when the darkness came, the chain that closed the Golden Horn was loosened, and the help of two Venetian ships took shelter in the harbor and successfully delivered its aid to Constantinople. The next day, Mehmet II went to the navy command with ten thousand horsemen to account for the defeat. The angry sultan who wanted to execute Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey gave up execution as a result of the begging of other statesmen, but he dismissed Baltaoğlu by beating him with his mace; Çalıbeyoğlu Hamza Bey was brought to the vacant captain.



After the failure of the attacks on the city, the galleons that brought aid broke through the Ottoman navy and II. Mehmet held meetings with statesmen and commanders. Repeating that European states would come to help at the meeting, Çandarlı Halil Pasha suggested that the siege be lifted and that Byzantium be subjected to 70,000 Ducat gold tax. However, other people, including Mehmet II’s brother-in-law Zağanos Pasha and his teacher Molla Gürani objected to this proposal. Despite this, nobody could make any proposals about how to enter the Golden Horn at the meeting. 14 years before Mehmet ascended the throne, Venetian commander Gattamelata took his ships from the Adige to Lake Garda by land. It is estimated that this event is taken as an example in the operation of ships from land.

First, Zağanos Pasha was ordered to build a bridge over the Golden Horn to establish a land connection between Galata and Constantinople walls. However, it was thought that this bridge would be vulnerable to Byzantine and allied ships in the Golden Horn. Thereupon II. Mehmet ordered the Ottoman navy in front of the Diplonsion (today’s Beşiktaş) to slide in front of the Galata walls and land on the Golden Horn. Additionally, cannons were placed on the dominant hills around Galata to hit the Golden Horn walls and the navy on the Golden Horn. The distance the ships would pass was 2 to 4 kilometers and it was forested; The trees on the route were cut down and then the trees were fixed on the soil by lubricating with the olive oil given by the Genoese.

The Genoese followed a policy of balance throughout the war and helped both the Byzantine and the Ottoman sides. Before the ships were executed, Ottoman artillery deployed on Galata sides bombarded the ships in the Golden Horn. The ships were sailed on the night of April 21-22 so that the Byzantines would not notice. Meanwhile, in a diverting way, a large breach was opened around St Romanos Gate. Those in the city that night were busy closing this gap. In the morning, 72 Ottoman warships were successfully landed and the chain that closed the Golden Horn was dysfunctional. The Ottomans started the construction of the wooden bridge, the second stage of the plan. On April 24, a galley of Giustiniani approached to burn the ships but was sunk by Ottoman artillery.



After the incident, those on the Byzantine side gathered at St Maria Church and found it necessary to make a second attack and burn the ships. The attack was to be carried out at night under the command of Venetian captain Jacomo Coco. Galata Genoese, who postponed the attack for one day on the pretext of preparing the ships for the attack, took advantage of the time they had saved and conveyed the plan secretly to Mehmet II. Learning of the plan, II Mehmet ordered the ships in the Golden Horn to be reinforced and two more guns to be placed on the shores. On the night of April 28, two or three ships loaded with Grejuvas under the command of Jacomo Coco approached the Ottoman ships. But the Ottoman navy, aware of the attack, opened fire; Coco’s ship was sunk.

The other galley under the command of Cabriel Trivixan did not notice what was happening to Coco’s ship due to the noise of the guns and continued to move forward. Ottoman artillery hit this galley as well; a hole was drilled in the hull, but the galley was prevented from getting water, as the two crews squeezed their capes into the hole. On the other hand, a ship of the Ottomans was burned and the captured sailors were killed, visible from the city. In retaliation, the Byzantines executed 260 prisoners in their hands and put their severed heads on the walls.

How Istanbul Was Conquered III: Artillery Fires


After the Ottoman ships fend off the Byzantine counterattacks on the Golden Horn, the artillery deployed in Galata began to bomb the walls along with the ships in the Golden Horn. Thereupon, the Byzantines had to move soldiers to the Golden Horn walls. Still, the Ottoman artillery could not demolish the walls due to the long distance. Of the 150 shots, only 1 was hit and a woman died. Relieved that the Golden Horn walls were not damaged, the Byzantines placed two cannons on the walls of the Golden Horn on May 3 to protect their ships under heavy fire. As a result of the fire opened, two Ottoman ships were sunk. The answer of the Ottomans was to bring these two cannons under fire by bringing three cannons to the opposite shore. Despite the ongoing conflict day and night, neither side could destroy each other’s cannons.

While the mutual bombardment continued on the Golden Horn, the walls around St Romanos were also being bombed. The increasing number of walking towers were higher than the city walls and small cannons were placed in them, and the Ottoman soldiers prevented the gaps opened by these towers. The ditches filled with fragments falling from the walls gave the Ottoman army the opportunity to attack. Byzantine defense continued to inflict losses on the Ottomans; four moving towers were burned. Considering that the walls were sufficiently worn, Mehmet II launched an attack on the evening of May 6. But no result was achieved and the army, which suffered heavy losses, retreated. After this attack, the most worn part of the walls, St. Romanos was reinforced with some 400 Venetian sailors.



After that, artillery fire concentrated on the walls between Kaligaria Gate (Eğri Kapı) and Blakernai Palace. The Ottoman army, which entered the breaches opened on May 12, was repelled as a result of the training of Byzantine reserves, although they prevailed at first. Then, another attack was carried out; In this too, the Ottomans withdrew without getting results due to the Byzantine force of a thousand people coming to help from Caligari. On the morning of May 19, the Ottoman army brought a walking tower higher than the city walls near the Adrianapolis Gate. It consisted of a wooden skeleton covered with layers of ox/camel skin and the gaps of the skeleton were filled with soil, thanks to this tower, where arrows and small cannonballs could not damage, the ditches were filled with earth while shooting arrows at the soldiers on the wall.

On the same day, the Ottoman army built a bridge of tied barrels where the Golden Horn contracted; In order not to be destroyed by a fire that the Byzantines could open, it was not extended to the Kynegos Gate on the Golden Horn walls. The Byzantine side had to deploy soldiers on the Golden Horn walls despite the possibility of extending this unfinished bridge to the Kynegos Gate. On May 21st, the entire Ottoman fleet came to the Golden Horn, the townspeople, who thought that the general attack would begin, panicked, and bells were ringed in churches; However, as there was no land attack, the Ottoman navy returned a few hours later. According to the Venetian doctor Barbaro, who was in the city during the siege, the walls were being bombed every day; The artillery he described was throwing a 544-pound shot, and each shot caused panic in the city.



On the morning of May 16, the guards, hearing voices from underground around the Kaligaria Gate, noticed that the Ottoman sewers were digging a tunnel and began digging a tunnel themselves to stop it. When the two tunnels met in a short time, the underground war started; The fire deliberately started by the Byzantine sewers who were in charge of destroying the tunnel of the Ottomans at all costs caused the death of the Ottoman sewers and the collapse of both tunnels. On May 21, Ottoman sewers opened a second tunnel around the Kaligaria Gate, which lacked watchtowers, and it was also noticed by those in the city; As in the previous tunnel, the Ottoman sewers, who predicted that the Byzantine sewers would start a fire again, set their tunnels on fire without giving them a chance, causing the death of the Byzantine sewers along with them.

The next day, another tunnel was discovered in the same place; With the hot oil spilled by the guards, the sewers were killed and the tunnel set on fire, the same day an as yet undiscovered Ottoman tunnel collapsed. Engineer Jean Grant, who was among the defenders of the city, started to work to find out if there were other tunnels, and as we entered the last week of the siege, several more Ottoman tunnels were discovered every day; On May 23-24-25, other tunnels were found in the same place. The tunnel noticed on 25 May reached under the walls; If destroyed, the walls could collapse; Byzantine sewers were content to wall the tunnel.

How Istanbul Was Conquered IV: The Final Offensive


After the fleet landed on the Golden Horn, the famine that started in the city, the underground wars, and the towering high above the walls, the Ottoman army had begun to prepare for the final attack. On 23 or 24 May II. Mehmet sent his brother-in-law İsfendiyaroğlu Kasım Bey to Emperor Constantine as an ambassador. It was stated that if they surrendered, Constantine and his family could safely go wherever they wanted, the lives and properties of the people would not be touched, and lastly, friendly relations would be established with the Paleologos dynasty, but if they did not surrender, the emperor and other nobles would be killed, the people of the city would be captured, and the army would be allowed to plunder.



The emperor refused to surrender the city but stated that he was ready to pay taxes. Despite the concerns of Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, it was decided to continue the siege and to make the last attack on 29 May. The decision and day of the attack were announced to the Ottoman army; If the city was conquered, it was declared by the sultan that all soldiers had the right to plunder the city for three days. In addition, the sultan declared that he would award the first soldier to rise on the walls, but also execute those who escaped from the war; After the pillage permit was issued, festivities started in the Ottoman army and tents and ships were illuminated; Takbir voices were rising so that those in the city could hear.

Sultan Mehmet divided his army into three groups; the first group consisted of elders and Christians, the second group of Muslim peasants and torments who joined the army, and the third group of janissaries. It is recorded that each group consists of approximately 50 thousand soldiers. Most of the army was in front of the severely damaged St Romanos Gate. Emperors Constantine and Giustiniani were also waiting with their troops to defend this line. On Tuesday, May 29, the Ottoman army prayed before sunrise and the Mehter team began to play the assault anthem. The primary task of the first group of the elderly and Christians was to move the stairs to the walls.

The battle started before sunrise, but the stairs erected on the walls were immediately toppled by the Byzantine soldiers, and the soldiers approaching the walls were killed by throwing stones and arrows. The attack of this group lasted two hours. This group, most of which was destroyed, started to flee towards the camp. But the order given by II Mehmet the day before was executed; The fleeing soldiers were slaughtered and forced to return to the walls. The turn was in the second group consisting of the main combat soldiers, and this group’s attack started. The attack was increasingly concentrated around St Romanos, but the soldiers of the second group could not climb the walls or erect the stairs.



Byzantine soldiers repelled all attacks using hot oil, Grejuva, arrows, and stones. The second group was also exhausted and this had a positive effect on the morale of the Byzantine forces; After an hour and a half of war, some soldiers from the second group also started to flee. Those who escaped from the war also faced the executions of their commanders and Sultan Mehmet II punished a few fugitives with his mace. Mehmet II approached the walls with his janissaries, the last group remaining in his hands. Byzantine troops were tired now, vigorous and experienced janissaries reached the walls without breaking their ranks; When the Kerkoporta Gate, which was opened on the orders of Constantine for the counterattack the night before, allowed about fifty Ottoman soldiers to enter, the morale of the Byzantine soldiers deteriorated.

At that time, the great Ottoman cannon was fired and a passage was opened for the Janissaries, and the clash of the Janissaries and Byzantine soldiers began in the dust cloud. The Ottoman soldiers who managed to enter the watchtower were destroyed and the Byzantine soldiers, who saw that they repel the Janissaries, began to enjoy the victory, but the Ottoman cannon fired again; The offensive of the remaining Ottoman troops had begun. The first wall, which did not have any resistance, was captured by the Ottomans, and the janissaries, who secured this place with the support of the torments, started the attack on the second wall with all their might.



Both walls were in ruins and fighting was ongoing. With the effect of the defeat, the Piya Gate in the south also fell and the pillage of the Ottoman soldiers began. The weight of the army was moving towards the center of the city, the wealth there was greater, and the bannermen wanted to plant the Ottoman flags as soon as possible. By noon, the city had fallen and loot started, but the resistance continued in the walls of the Golden Horn, the bastions of Vasileos, Leon, Alexius; Although the Golden Horn walls were dropped later, the three bastions continued to resist. These three bastions defended by Cretan sailors surrendered, and the sailors were given permission by Mehmet II to return to their homes.

Mehmet II, with his viziers and commanders, entered the city through St Romanos Gate (Topkapı). Coming in front of Hagia Sophia II. Mehmet fell prostrate and kissed the ground and asked the crowd who took refuge in the church to go out, saying that they would only be made slaves; their souls were left untouched. It is mentioned in historical sources that he examined the mosaics and valuable marbles in Hagia Sophia. Meanwhile, when he saw a soldier trying to dismantle the marble, he reacted and said that the buildings in the city were his property. Despite the three-day pillage he had given to the soldiers before the attack, he ordered the looting to be finished immediately and those who disobeyed to be executed.

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How Istanbul Get Its Name: The Historical Development of Istanbul’s Name



Conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453, Istanbul has hosted different empires for centuries. Istanbul, which has an important place in world history, preserves this situation today. It is one of the most crowded and largest cities in the world. Istanbul, located at the confluence of European and Asian continents, has a long history. So, where does the name of Istanbul, home to three great empires, come from? In the following paragraphs, you will learn about the historical development of Istanbul, where many cultures and religions live together and witnessed many historical moments.

Istanbul has been given various names throughout history. These names varying in different times of history are Byzantion, Augusta Antonina, Nova Roma, Constantinople, Konstantiniyye, and the present Istanbul. The Ottomans used the name Istanbul with the sound “i”, which was used as a change in the pronunciation of the names “Istinpol”, “Estanbol”, “Istinbolin”, “Stinboli”, and “Sitanpul” used in the Roman period. Later, they named it Islâmbol, which means the center of Khilafah. Over time, its transition to Turkish became Istanbul.



Byzantion is the first known name of Istanbul. In 667 BC, Dorian Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara in Ancient Greece established a colony in today’s Istanbul and the new colony is named after their king Byzas or Byzantas. It is also referred to as Byzantium in some sources. Byzantium is the Latinized version of the city given by the Romans when they conquered it in the 1st century AD. Augusta Antonina is the short term name of the city, which was named by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus in honor of his son Antonius.

When the Roman Emperor Constantine I was declared the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD, he named the city Nova Roma, which means “New Rome” in Latin. With the death of Emperor Constantine, I in AD 337, the name of the city was changed to Constantinople, which means “city of Constantine” in his honor. Constantinople remained the city’s official name throughout the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. But Constantinople was referred to by the locals only as (Polis), which means “city” in Greek. After Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror conquered the city in 1453, the city was declared the fourth capital of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantinople continued to be used for a long time. After the Republic of Turkey was established on 29 October 1923, foreigners continued to use the name Constantinople instead of Istanbul for 7 more years.

Kostantiniyye is the Arabic form of Constantinople. It is the most known and most used name in the Islamic world. Constantinople, which means “city of Constantine” in Greek, means “the place of Constantine” in Kostantiniyye Arabic. However, in some periods, the Ottoman authorities used names such as Dersaadet (Arabic: “Happiness Gate”), Darâliye (Arabic: “Yüce Kapı”), Bâb-ı Âli (Arabic: “Yüce Kapı”), and Pâyitaht (Persian: “The Leg of the Throne” or “Capital”).

The Historical Development of the Istanbul and Its Names


Istanbul has a settlement history of 300,000 years, a metropolitan history of around 3000 years, and a capital history of 1600 years. Throughout the century, it has been the sole ruler of the region in its wide geography from the Danube River in the west to the Persian Empire in the east. The first traces of human culture were found during the excavations carried out in the Yarimburgaz Cave, located on the edge of Küçükçekmece Lake. It is believed that Neolithic and Chalcolithic people lived around the lake during this period.

Megara residents are accepted as the first significant settlers. Istanbul was founded as an ancient Greek city-state called Byzantion during this period. Soon it grew stronger. It was captured by the Roman Empire. The establishments of the present Istanbul were laid in the seventh century BC. The city of “Byzantion” was founded by the people of Megara in 667 BC. By displaying a city-state structure for a long time, Byzantium became a dominant power in the entire ancient Greek region thanks to economic development due to its strategic location.



In this period, Istanbul will be Byzantium, Latinized, and become one of the important cities of the Roman Empire as Byzantium, its name will change and it will become the capital of the Roman Empire as Constantinople. Byzantion passed into the hands of the Roman Empire in 196 BC. Especially during the Emperor Vespasian period, its name is Byzantium in Latin. In 196, he was punished and severely damaged by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus for making an agreement with the Persian Emperor Pescennius; the city is rebuilt throughout. It was declared the capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine I in 330.

Istanbul’s capital history began 65 years before the separation of the Roman Empire into East-West. Byzantion was made the capital of the Roman Empire as ‘Nova Roma (New Rome)’ at the request of Emperor Constantine the Great in 330, and the name of the city was changed from Byzantium to Constantinople after the death of the emperor. Constantinople, which replaced Rome with its invasion and collapse, becomes the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, the successor state of the Roman Empire, which was divided into two in 395. During this period, Istanbul will become the capital of the Byzantine Empire as Constantinople.



Constantinople became the capital of the state in 395, which was first established as the Eastern Roman Empire and later became the Byzantine Empire after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Constantinople is also the brightest and richest city in the world in the early Middle Ages. Constantinople, which was occupied by Latins between 1204-1261, became a part of the Latin Empire. It was the capital of the Byzantine Empire until 1453 after the Latin rule. Istanbul will be the capital of a great world empire during the Ottoman period, and it will dominate the lands spanning three continents for more than 400 years.

After the conquest of the city by Fatih Sultan Mehmed on May 29, 1453, the capital period of the Ottoman Empire begins. The city, which was called Konstantiniyye by the Muslims, was called the ‘E Stin Polis’ (From the Capital / City) by the Greeks. The Ottomans also used this name and made it the shape of Istanbul. The Russians called the city Çarigrad (Tsar’s city), and its name in the Balkans was Stambul. On October 29, 1923, when the capital of the Republic of Turkey was declared as Ankara, Istanbul lost its capital property. In 1930, the name Constantinople was completely abolished and its official name became Istanbul.

Where Does the Name Istanbul Come From


Istanbul, whose history goes back 8,500 years with the ruins found in Yenikapı and which is “the only city that has been the capital of 3 empires in the world”, has been called different names throughout its history. After the Ottoman Empire conquered the city which was called “Byzantion” for 1004 years and “Constantinople” in 1116 years, it did not enter into a discussion about what its name would be. The name of the city, which was also called “Konstantiniyye”, “Stanpolis”, “Dersaadet”, “Asitane”, “Darülhilafe” and “Makarrı Saltanat” in the Ottoman period, was accepted as “Istanbul” after the declaration of the Republic.

The city, whose history dates back to 8500 years ago with the ruins found in Yenikapı, founded a colony by the Dorian Greek settlers from Megara in Ancient Greece in 667 BC and named the new colony “Byzantion” in honor of their king Byzas. At the point when the city was pronounced the capital of the Roman Empire in 330, it was called “Nova Roma”, signifying “New Rome” in Latin, however, this name was not embraced a lot. After the death of Emperor Constantine, I in 337, the name of the city was changed to “Constantinople” which means “Constantine’s city” in his honor. Constantinople remained the city’s official name throughout the Byzantine Empire.



After the Ottoman Empire conquered the city called “Byzantion” for 1004 years and “Constantinople” in 1116 years, it did not enter into a name fight. Experts stated that after the conquest of Istanbul by the Ottomans, there were many names, some official names were used very little and some were adopted by the public. Emphasizing whether the Ottoman sultans never stuck on the name, experts said. There is one exception to this. Sultan Mustafa III especially uses Islambol, which means the city of Islam. It is known that the most used name in the Ottoman period was “Konstantiniyye”, which was translated into the Arabic language of Constantinople.

The Origin of the Word “Istanbul”


When the city is mentioned, Istanbul within the walls comes to mind. In my opinion, it is more important where Istanbul’s name comes from than where Istanbul is. At that time, they never called the places outside the section inside the city wall Istanbul. This is the most confused and common mistake right now. It separates Eyüp from Istanbul, when the opposite shore is mentioned, Galata comes to mind, not Kadıköy. When it comes to crossing over, there is a line from Karaköy to Galata and from Galata to Kuledibi. There is no more Taksim, and there is Üsküdar. Apart from that, there are Adalar and villages on the Bosphorus, which are used seasonally. So the Bosphorus is not considered Istanbul. When it is said ‘I will go to Istanbul’, it means and separates the walls.

Experts stated that the Ottoman state used the names “Darülhilafe” meaning the center of the caliphate and “Makarri Sultanate” meaning the center of the sultanate, and “This is very convenient. The Ottoman does not directly engage in that fight, it defines a city from its function. Whoever says what, whether Constantinople or not, no matter what they say, it is Darülhilafe. It is Makarr-ı Saltanat. This reveals the tolerance of the Ottoman Empire and a self-confident state over all these discussions.



Experts stated that there is a debate about the beginning of the name Istanbul with the letter “I” or “i” and that Istanbul has two different spellings. Istanbul which is written with the letter “I” is used more in Istanbul Turkish. Emphasizing that they do not focus on which word is the truth, linguists said, “I believe that the idea of ​​preserving the city’s historical place properly, preserving its appearance and historical feature and at least being the center of a certain part of the world is more important.

Expressing that the name Istanbul, which was officially used after the Republic, comes from Greek and was a name used in the past, specialists state that the source of Istanbul is a blend of the words “stan” signifying “to the city” and “police” signifying “city”. Experts said, “Why did they say Stanpolis? Because people who came here would ask the city on the way, ‘How can we go to the city? That is why the name of the city remained ‘Stanpolis’ and transformed into Istanbul in time.” Specialists expressed that the city had numerous names, for example, Konstantiniyye, Dersaadet in the Ottoman Empire, a portion of the utilization of the name Istanbul with the republic.

The Old Names of Istanbul


I have also included the names given to Istanbul throughout history due to the discussions on the name of Istanbul, which has been in dispute from time to time by historians and has been brought to the agenda in diplomatic relations.



  • Byzantion

The city, whose history dates back to 8500 years ago with the ruins found in Yenikapı, founded a colony by the Dorian Greek settlers from Megara in Ancient Greece in 667 BC and named the new colony “Byzantion” in honor of their king Byzas.

  • Nova Roma

At the point when the city was pronounced the capital of the Roman Empire in 330, it was named “Nova Roma”, which signifies “New Rome” in Latin, yet this name was not embraced a lot.

  • Constantinople

With the death of Emperor Constantine I, the name of the city was changed to “Constantinople”, which means “the city of Constantine” in his honor. Constantinople was the official name of Istanbul all through the Byzantine Empire.

  • Stanpoli

The word ‘is ten polin’ in ancient Greek, meaning (to go) towards the city, and some of the ancient experts suggested as the etymological source of the name Istanbul.

  • Darülhilafe

In the official correspondence of the Ottoman Empire, the word “Darülhilafe” was used to mean the center of the caliphate.

  • Makari Sultanate

The word meaning the center of the reign.



  • Dersaadet

It is one of the old names of Istanbul, which signifies “the entryway of joy”.

  • Asitane

It is that this word comes from the Turkish words Astana and Balık. According to this thesis: The word Istanbul consists of two words in pure Turkish. It is formed from the words Astana (or “Asitane” in Ottoman Turkish) and Fish. The words Astana or Asitane comes from the pre-Turkish word ASKAN or ASQAN, it means belonging to heaven, beautiful place or ruling, khanate. The word ASTANABAL is more catchy and easier to say as a result of the words and idioms used by the dominant elements trying to be said by the components that have been caught and become Turkified, and the word is distorted.

  • Istanbul

Istanbul, which is called differently in various languages and civilizations, became the present name of this historically and culturally very rich settlement. It has traces from the past, from Greek and Latin cultures, as well as it is a complete Turkish word.

  • The Islamic names

The name Istanbul actually comes from the word “Islambol”, that is, “plenty of Muslims”. Turkish scientists used the word “Islam bol” on the letter envelopes and in their works until the last days of the Ottoman Empire. “Islambol” is written on the coins minted during the time of Sultan Ahmed the Third and in some of the coins and all of the coins until the period of Sultan Selim III. Istanbul has various names other than “Islambol”. “Sultanşehir”, “Belden-üt-Tayyibe” “Dergâh-ı Selâtin”, “Derseâdet”, “Asitâne”, “Dâr-ul-Islam”, “Dâr-ul-Hilâfe”, “Dâr-us-Seâde”, It has been referred to by names such as “Âsitâne-i Devlet”, “Pây-ı Taht-ı Saltanat”, “Aziz İstanbul” and one or more of these were also used together. It was known as “Byzantion”, Deutra-Roma “,” Roma Nea “,” Constantinople “,” Bulin “,” Astanbulin “, and” Istimbuli “before the Ottomans. Before the Ottoman conquest, its name among Muslims is “Constantinople”. Evliya Celebi narrates that Istanbul was founded 1600 years before the Prophet’s arrival in the world, by the son of Dawud, Hazrat Sulayman.

Controversies About the Name of Istanbul


There has been a debate going on for almost a century about the origin of Istanbul, a Turkish city name. Was the name ‘Islambol’ used for this city, where a large number of non-Muslim populations lived until the Republic and the exchange period and which has been the capital of the Orthodox faith for centuries? Since when has it been used? Did Islambol turn into ‘Istanbul’ overtime? Or is the origin of the name Istanbul even older than the establishment of the Ottoman Empire?

Finally, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s speech on the June 23 elections said, “This is Istanbul, also known as Islambol. This is not Constantinople, but there are those who want to see this place like this. We have 22 days against the individuals who need to see this.” This announcement went to the front indeed. Although the original form of the word Islambol, which is supposed to be ‘Islam abundant, full of Islam’ or Islambul, ‘find Islam’, is associated with the religion of Islam, experts state that this is not the origin of the word but a later folk derivation.



It is noted that this derivation was widely adopted for a period and that the word ‘Islambol’ was seen on Ottoman coins from the time of Ahmed the Third to Selim the Third (1708-1807). Another claim, which has not been given much compliment among historians, is that the expression ‘Stanbol’ is the long and troublesome name of Constantinople, which has been corrupted for practical reasons in folk language. In his work “An Essay on the etymology of the word Istanbul”, Berberian explains this claim with Turkish phonetic and harmony reasons.

In addition, Berberian explains that it is possible to see similar but different examples in Armenian works and refers to the words Istinbol and “Istanbol”, which were mentioned in Bitlisli Arakel’s elegy on the conquest of Istanbul in the 15th century. It was also noted that Simeon, a Polish traveler who lived in the 17th century, pronounced the name of the city as “Istinbol” in his works. There are many place-names derived from folk language (demotic) in the world, but the name ‘Istanbul’ is not accepted as one of them. There is a strong consensus that it is etymologically derived from the new Greek “is tin póli” (εισ την πόλι) meaning inner city, the name given to the inner city part of Istanbul compared to Galata.



The study prepared by Robert Woodhouse, who works at the Institute of Languages ​​and Comparative Culture Studies of Queensland University with Marek Stachowski, Etymology Specialist at Jagielloński University of Poland, by examining all known sources on the etymology of Istanbul, is based on a Greek-Latin agreement dated 1299 and The “Stinboli” form in the Latin text is mentioned. It is noted that in the period of 1868-1878, two different forms were formed as ‘Stambólköy’ with the termination of the Turkish ‘village’ element. At this point, the difference between Sta (n / m) sounds is thought to be due to the use of nasal passages in the pronunciation of classical Greek and modern Greek.

The basis for the precise pronunciation of the word ‘Istimboli’ in Greek in the work of Woodhouse and Stachowski is that Johannes Schiltberger from Bavaria, who was known as Europe’s first Turcologist, who spent his youth as a prisoner in the Ottoman Empire after the Niğbolu Pitch War and reflected what he saw in Anatolia in his works 30 years later. Speaking Turkish, Persian, Armenian, and Greek and considered as the Marco Polo of the Germans, Schiltberger, who was in the house of an archbishop in the Ottoman Empire for 3 months in 1426, received notes as ‘Istimboli’ from Istanbul – possibly recorded in the spoken language of the city. Turkish history professor Halil İnalcık, who is one of the few historians of the world with his contributions to Turkish-Ottoman history, does not specify the exact source, but notes that the correct form of the word is ‘İstimboli’.

Naming Process of the City From Byzantion to Istanbul


Istanbul is the most populous and economically most important city in Turkey. The 34th largest economy city in the world is the city with the highest population in Europe according to the ranking made considering the municipal borders. Istanbul, one of the oldest cities in the world, served as the capital of many civilizations such as the Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire between 1204 – 1261, and the Ottoman Empire. In addition, Istanbul became the center of Islam from 1517, when the caliphate passed to the Ottoman Empire, until 1924 when it was abolished.

Istanbul has been given various names all through the ages. These city names are associated with different periods of the city’s history. These names are Byzantion, Augusta Antonina, Nova Roma, Constantinople, Konstantiniyye, and today’s Istanbul in historical order. Byzantion is the first official name of Istanbul. In 667 BC, Dorian Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara in Ancient Greece established a colony over present-day Istanbul and named the new colony Byzantion in honor of their king Byzas or Byzantas (Greek: Βύζας or Βύζαντας).



Byzantium is the Latinized version of the name of the ancient city, whose original name was Byzantion, in the 1st century AD, when the city was conquered by the Romans. Augusta Antonina is the short-term name of the city that was named by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus in the early 3rd century in honor of his son Antonius (later Roman Emperor Caracalla). When the city was declared the capital of the Roman Empire by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 330 AD, he named the city Nova Roma (Greek: Νέα Ρώμη, Nea Roma), which means “New Rome” in Latin, and this name was never adopted, although he tried to promote this name.

However, after the death of Emperor Constantine, I in AD 337, the name of the city was changed to Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, Kōnstantinoúpolis, Latinized: Constantinople) in his honor. Constantinople remained the city’s official name throughout the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. But Constantinople was referred to by the natives of the city simply as (Πόλιν, Polis), which means “city” in Greek. Even after its conquest by the Ottoman Empire under the leadership of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror in 1453, Constantinople remained the most common name used in the West. On 29 October 1923 after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, the name became Istanbul.

Kostantiniyye (Arabic: القسطنطينية, al-Qusṭanṭiniyah, Ottoman Turkish: قسطنطينيه, Kostantiniyye) is the Arabic form of Constantinople and became the city’s most widely used name in the Islamic world. Unlike Constantinople, which means “city of Constantine” in Greek, Constantinople means “the place of Constantine” in Arabic. After the conquest in 1453, the city was declared the fourth capital of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantinople was used as the official name of the city by the Ottoman state, and this name remained in use for most of the time until the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1923. For instance, the Ottoman state and courts utilized titles, for example, “be-Makam-ı Darü’s-Saltanat-ı Kostantiniyyetü’l-Mahrusâtü’l-Mahmiyye” to demonstrate the wellspring of legitimate reports distributed in Kostantiniyye. That was, in those times, a consuetudinary state action.



However, in some periods, Ottoman officials were in favor of other names for the city. Especially these glorifying names were used synonymously and encouraged both for the city and for defining the Ottoman government and for diplomatic correspondence:

Dersaadet (Arabic: در سعادت, “The Door to Happiness”)
Darâliye (Arabic: در عاليه, “Supreme Gate”)
Bâb-ı Âli (Arabic: باب عالی, “The Supreme Gate”)
Asitane (Persian: آستانه, “Threshold of the State”)

Etymologically, the origin of the name Istanbul (Turkish pronunciation: [isˈtanbuɫ], and sometimes [ɯsˈtambuɫ] among the people) means “city” or “in the city” in Medieval (Byzantine) Greek (Greek pronunciation: [εἰς τὴν Πόλιν ], [is tin ˈpolin]) was formed by Turkish translation of the words. The name Istanbul has been mentioned in Arabic sources (in different ways) since the 10th century and in Turkish sources since the 11th century. In addition, the name Istanbul was used for the city in Turkish, especially among the Turkish people, even before the 1453 conquest. In the early documents of the Ottoman Empire, the name Istanbul was mentioned in Ottoman Turkish as (استان, a-sitan or i-stan), and i-stan means “land of beauty” in Arabic. In the last period of documents, it was mentioned as (استانبول, a-stan-bol, or i-stan-bul).

Although Istanbul was not an official name during the Ottoman period, it was included in official documents and was used frequently. In addition, in the Ottoman Army, the title of Istanbul’s lord was used for the central army commander of Istanbul, and the master of Istanbul was officially used for the highest civilian judge of Istanbul. This title later became prestigious and was used informally for cultured and well-mannered Istanbulites. October 29, 1923 years after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, even in Constantinople and abroad throughout almost the first seven years of the Republic of Constantinople names continue to be used by Westerners was adapted.



However, on March 28, 1930, the name of the city was officially changed with the Turkish Postal Service Law and took the name Istanbul. The name Constantinople, on the other hand, has been completely abolished. In addition, the Turkish authorities requested foreigners to use the official name Istanbul as the only name of the city in their own language and put it into practice. With the Republican era, after Istanbul was declared the official and international name of the city, the use of the name “Constantinople” in letters or other correspondence and in international fields was prohibited. For example, if the address was written as “Constantinople” (even if Istanbul is written next to it) in the letters sent to Istanbul from abroad, these letters started to be sent back.

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